Project on malnutrition and infant mortality in indian

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2. Overview The UN estimates that 2.1 million Indian children diebefore reaching the age of 5 every year four every minute- mostly from preventable illnesses such as diarrhoea,typhoid, malaria, measles and pneumonia. Every day, 1,000Indian children die because of diarrhoea alone. India has the largest child development program in theworld yet progress on malnutrition is limited. Micronutrient deficiencies alone can cost US$2.5 billionannually. 3. Overview cond Approximately 60 million children are underweight in India.Given its impact on health, education and productivity,persistent under nutrition is a major obstacle to humandevelopment and economic growth in the country. In India, child malnutrition is mostly the result of high levels ofexposure to infection and inappropriate infant and young childfeeding and caring practices, and has its origins almost entirelyduring the first two to three years of life. 30 percent of Indian children are born with low birth weight. 4. CURRENT SCNARIO Malnutrition has been estimated to be associated withabout half of all child deaths and more than half ofchild deaths from major diseases, such as malaria (57percent), diarrhoea (61 percent) and pneumonia (52percent), as well as 45 percent of deaths from measles(45 percent). In India, child malnutrition is responsiblefor 22 percent of the countrys burden of disease. Underweight prevalence is higher in rural areas (50percent) than in urban areas (38 percent); higheramong girls (48.9 percent) than among boys (45.5percent); higher among scheduled castes (53.2 percent)and scheduled tribes (56.2 percent) than among othercastes (44.1 percent) 5. Causes of Death ofNewborn to One Month of Age Born before due date 27% Pneumonia/Sepsis 25% Asphyxia 23% Tetanus 7% Diarrhea3% 6. Development Programs The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) hasexpanded tremendously over its 30 years of operation tocover almost all development blocks in India and offers awide range of health, nutrition and education services tochildren, women and adolescent girls. The launch of the Government of Indias National HealthMission and a National Nutrition Mission in fiscal year 2005-2006; the decision to target improving nutrition outcomes aspart of the MDGs( Millennium Development Goal). The World Bank and UNICEF has supported efforts toimprove nutrition in India since 1980 with mixed results. 7. Failure of ICDSThe program is intended to target the needs of the poorest andthe most undernourished, as well as the age groups thatrepresent a significant window of opportunity fornutrition investments (i.e. children under three, pregnantand lactating women), there is a mismatch between theprograms intentions and its actual implementation. The dominant focus on food supplementation is to thedetriment of other tasks envisaged in the program which arecrucial for improving child nutritional outcomes. 8. Service delivery is not sufficiently focused on the youngestchildren (under three), who could potentially benefit mostfrom ICDS interventions. In addition, children from wealthierhouseholds participate much more than poorer ones. Although program growth was greater in underserved thanwell-served areas during the 1990s, the poorest states andthose with the highest levels of under nutrition still have thelowest levels of program funding and coverage by ICDSactivities. the program faces substantial operational challenges.Inadequate worker skills, shortage of equipment, poor andsupervision detract from the programs potential impact. 9. Reforms to improve ICDSUrgent changes are needed to bridge the gap betweenthe policy intentions of ICDS and its actualimplementation. The first immediate step should be to resolve the currentambiguity about the priority of different program objectivesand interventions. ICDS activities need to be refocused on the most importantdeterminants of malnutrition. ICDS should emphasizing disease control and preventionactivities, education to improve domestic child-care andfeeding practices, and micronutrient supplementation. 10. Reforms to improve ICDS cond. Activities need to be better targeted towards the mostvulnerable age groups(children under three and pregnantwomen). Involving communities in the implementation andmonitoring of ICDS can be used to bring in additionalresources into the anganwadi centers, improve quality ofservice delivery and increase accountability in the system. Monitoring and evaluation activities need strengtheningthrough the collection of timely, relevant, accessible, high-quality information. 11. ConclusionTransforming ICDS into an intervention thateffectively combats under nutrition will yieldhuge benefits for India, both in terms ofhuman development and economic returns,but will require substantial changes in theprograms design and implementation. 12. THANKYOU


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