κυηση και καταχρησεις καπνισμα και αλκοολ

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<p> 1. : . . .... .. 2. 3. ; 4. .. &gt;18 19.3% 21.5% 45.2% 17.3% 9-11 33.8% 23.8% 18-24 20.1% 9.9% 25-44 22% 6.3% 45-64 21.1% 65+ 9.5% &lt; 28.9% - &gt; 18.3% American Indians 31.4% Asians 9.2% Blacks 20.6% Hispanics 12.5% Whites 21% Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimate CDC 2010 5. EU 27 28% 32% . 34% 24% 23% 29% 15-24 29 % 38% 25-39 37% 21% 40-54 34% 49% 55+ 17% 17% 21% 15- 25% 16-19 33% 20+ 25% 21% 6. . 7. (....) 2009 , 1999-2009 % 15 % 1999-2009 8. (....) 2009 , 1999-2009 % 15 % 1999-2009 9. (....) % 15 , 2009 10. (....) , 2009 % 15 11. ( &gt;15, 1992-1998) 3923 3143 . 2898 2857 2846 2835 2819 2632 2525 2504 1 . ( The top10 of everything, UN, Human Development Report) 12. ; 13. Prevalence of smoking among women during pregnancy in the United States and Sweden U.S data from USDHHS (2002) Swedish data from P. Otterblad-Olausson P, National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden Danish data from U. Skovgaard Danielsen, National Board of Health and Welfare, Copenhagen, Denmark Nicotine Tob Res. 2004 Apr;6 Suppl 2:S125-40 .., (1982-2000) .. 14. Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy, by maternal age group and year Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), United States, 2000--2005 Prevalence of smoking before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and after delivery, by year Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), United States, 2000--2005 , 35 15. 2008 13% 45% 50% , 6 80% , 1 the 2008 Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS), United States 2010 10% March of Dimes. 2010. Smoking During Pregnancy, U.S.A 16. EUROPEAN PERINATAL HEALTH REPORT 1 by the EURO-PERISTAT project in collaboration with SCPE, EUROCAT &amp; EURONEOSTAT Data from 2004 EURO-PERISTAT Project, with SCPE, EUROCAT, EURONEOSTAT. European Perinatal Health Report. 2008. Available: www.europeristat.com &gt;10% 5-7% 13.6% 5-7% 14.7% 5-7% 16% 5-7% 16% 6.5% 16.9% 7% 52.5% 11.7% 21% 2006 17. : 18. &gt; 4000 50 19. &gt; 4000 50 20. (CO) (x 1.54) (&gt;15%) (x 1.120.30) 21. (&gt;15%) 22. CO 23. 2 / 24. 15-30% 150-300 . 150% 25. : : 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. ; 31. World Health Organization, 2011 32. World Health Organization, 2011 33. (....) 2009 15 , 1980-2009 (15 ) % 1980-2009 34. (....) 2009 15 , 1980-2009 (15 ) % 1980-2009 35. (....) ..., 1980-2009 .. .... 36. ; 37. ... 18-44 38. , 18-44 , ... 2006-2010 39. ( 1 30 ) 51.5% 7.6% 35-44 ( 4 1 30 ) (~ 6 3 ) 15% (~ 6 3 ) 1.4% 40. 1% 25-50% 41. * , 2009 1998 19.1 % 11.8 % 6.8 % 0.5 % 2009 * 20 % 6 % 3 % 1 % 3 % 7 % 42. 40% 4 43. : 44. : 45. : : Sir Francis Bacon (17 ): 1700: Gin , 1834 ( ): 1970 (Jones and Smith): 2000: 46. ( ) stress , 47. 48. 0.5-2 49. 50. 51. 52. / / / / 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 1 % ... 4.000.000.000 $ !!! 58. .. 27 20.000.000.000 !!! 1 % 59. 60. : 1-2 1-2 : 1-2 1 : &gt; 4-5 &gt; 5 61. 1 standard drink = 1 = 14 (...) 62. 1 2 2-3 63. ( ) (ADH) ( 1,2,3) P450 261 (CYP2E1) 64. 65. ?? 66. ?? !!! 67. O Brien P. Is it all right for women to drink small amounts of alcohol in pregnancy ? Yes. BMJ 2007; 335:857 Nathanson V, Jayesinghe N, Roykroft G. Is it all right for women to drink small amounts of alcohol in pregnancy ? NO. BMJ 2007; 335:856 68. 1 2 1 2 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, November 2006 Food Standards Agency (FSA) 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. .. .. : 74. 11 - 12 1089 ( ) ~ 600 ( ) 511 ~ 85 % ~ 15 % 75. 76. - 77. 78. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 8% 3% 6% 9% 2% 70,5% 1,5% 79. 2011 8 % 10,73 % 3 % 4,98 % 6 % 8,82 % 9 % 13,96 % 2 % 2,05 % 70,5 % 59,33 % / 1,5 % 80. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 68% 32% = 347 / 511 = 164 / 511 81. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 18 - 20 20 - 25 25 - 30 30 - 35 35 - 40 &gt; 40 3% 20% 32% 32% 10% 3% 82. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 13% 57% 30% 83. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% &lt; 10000 10000 - 15000 15000 - 20000 20000 - 25000 25000 - 30000 &gt; 30000 / 47% 26% 10% 5% 3% 3% 7% 84. 85. 34% 66% = 174 / 511 = 337 / 511 86. 19% 81% = 97 / 511 = 414 / 511 87. % 34 % 174 15 % 77 19 % 97 1 3,5 % 18 1 2 2,5 % 13 12,5 % 64 / 0,5 % 88. % 1 / 0,2 % 3 / 0,2 % 5 / 10 % 51 5-10 / 4,6 % 24 10-15 / 0,8 % 15-20 / 1,2 % &gt;20 / 1 % / 1 % 19 % 97 89. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 21% 14% = 74 / 347 = 23 / 164 90. 0% 10% 20% 30% 18 - 20 20 - 25 25 - 30 30 - 35 35 - 40 &gt; 40 24% 17% 17% 20% 22% 21% 91. 0% 10% 20% 30% / 27% 20% 13% 20% 92. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% &lt; 10000 10000 - 15000 15000 - 20000 20000 - 25000 25000 - 30000 &gt; 30000 / 24% 11% 8% 17% 35% 14% 21% 93. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 17% 23,5% 10% 13% 20% 20% 14% 94. 19 % (No=97) 14 % (No=72) !!! 95. 19 % (No=97) 1,8 % 12,5 % (No=64) / 4,7 % 96. 97. 80% 20% = 102 / 511 = 409 / 511 98. % 13,5 % 69 2 % 1,5 % / 3 % 20 % 102 99. % 1,2 % 6 7,3 % 37 10 % 51 / 1,5 % 20 % 102 100. % 7 % 36 9 % 46 - 3,4 % 17 - - 0,2 % - 0,2% / 0.2 % 20 % 102 101. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 22% 16% = 76 / 347 = 26 / 164 102. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 18 - 20 20 - 25 25 - 30 30 - 35 35 - 40 &gt; 40 18% 15% 18% 23% 22% 28,6% 103. 0% 10% 20% 30% / 19% 17% 25% 20% 104. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% &lt; 10000 10000 - 15000 15000 - 20000 20000 - 25000 25000 - 30000 &gt; 30000 18% 18% 25% 17% 24% 50% 105. 0% 10% 20% 30% 22% 12% 16% 20% 30% 20% 106. % 5 % 26 15 % 76 14 % 71 107. 108. 34 % &gt;15 ..., 2009 (GREECE) 34 % 11,7 % (GREECE) Euro-scip-III-survey, 2006 19 % 12,5 % 14,6 % 5 10 / &gt; * * * * CDC 2005 - 2010 ~ 109. 20 % , 2009 20 % 13,5 % 1,2 % / 7,3 % / &gt; 25-50 % . 27 Institute of alcohol studies 2006 9 % ..* *CDC 2006-2010 * - * * * 110. 111. ..,. 112. </p>

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