1. The present perfect tense The present perfect continuous tense STIKES FATHIR HUSADA BY ENDANG IRYANI, M.Pd
2. Formula (+) S + aux. verb(have/has) + V-3/past participleI I have read the book (-) S + aux. verb(have/has) + not + V-3/past participleI I have not read the book (?)aux. verb(have/has) + S + V-3/past participle Have I read the book
3. Formula I WE THEY HE SHE IT HAVE HAS
4. Formofpresentperfect: Positive Negative Question I/you/we/they I have spoken. I have not spoken. Have I spoken? He/she/it He has not spoken. He has not spoken. Has he spoken? For irregular verbs, use the participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For regular verbs, just add ed.
5. Present perfect tense Usage: The present perfect tense puts emphasis on the result Ex: She has written five letters. expresses an action that is still going on. Ex: School has not started yet. expresses an action that stopped recently Ex: She has cooked dinner. expresses a finished action that has an influence on the present Ex: I have lost my key. expresses an action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking Ex: I have never been to Australia.
6. FUNCTIONS We use the present perfect tense to talk about things where there is a connection between the past and the present. Hes written 16 books. He started writing books at some time in the past. So far, he has written 16 books. He may write more books. As well as the present perfect simple, we can use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about events with a connection to the present. 1 Look at these 2 sentences: Ive been decorating the house this summer. The focus is on the action decorating and the action is unfinished. Ive painted the living room blue. The focus is on the finished result. The activity is finished but we can see the result now.
7. FUNCTIONS We use the present perfect continuous when the focus is on an activity that is unfinished. 2 Look at these two sentences. Ive read that book you lent me. I finished it yesterday. Ive been reading that book you lent me. Ive got another 50 pages to read. The present perfect simple (Ive read) gives the idea of completion while the present perfect continuous (Ive been reading) suggests that something is unfinished. 3 Look at these two sentences. Shes been writing emails for 3 hours. Shes written 10 messages. We can use the present perfect simple to talk about how long when we view something as permanent. But thepresent perfect continuous is often used to show that something is temporary.
8. FUNCTIONS The present perfect continuous (has been writing) talks about how long something has been happening. The present perfect simple (has written) talks about how much/how many have been completed. 4 Look at these two sentences. Ive worked here for thirty years. I usually work in London but Ive been working in Birmingham for the last 3 weeks.
9. The adverbs are frequently used in the present perfect: For: When talking about the length of time (duration), we use the present perfect with for + a period of time. Ex: I have worked here for five years. She has lived here for twenty years. They have been married for six months. Since: When talking about a starting point, we use the present perfect with since + a point in time. Ex: I have lived here since 1998. They have been married since June. We have been at this school since last year. adverbs (ever, never, already, yet, still) 'Ever' and 'never' are always placed before the past participle. Ex: Has she ever met someone famous? I have never visited London. Ive never been so sick. Already, yet and still: It can be placed before the main verb (past participle) or at the end of the sentence.
10. Present perfect continuous USAGE: Thepresentperfectcontinuoustense puts emphasis on the duration or course of an action (not the result) Example: She has been writing for two hours. action that recently stopped or is still going on Example: I have been living here since 2001. finished action that influenced the present Example: I have been working all afternoon.
11. Formofpresentperfectcontinuous: Positive Negative Question I/we/you/they I have been speaking. I have not been speaking. Have I been speaking? He/she/it He has been speaking. He has not been speaking. Has he been speaking? Signal Words of Present Perfect Progressive: all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week
12. Reminder: Verbswithstativemeaningsarenotusedinthe progressive.Thepresentperfect,NOTthepresent perfectcontinuous,isusedwithstativeverbsto describethedurationofastatethatbeganinthepast andcontinuetothepresent. Ex: I have known Alice since he was a child. Incorrect: I have been knowing Alice since he was a child.
13. Presentperfectsimplevs.Presentperfect continuous Present perfect simple Present perfect continuous Form Have/has + V-ed/ V3 Have/has + been + V-ed/V3 Usage The present perfect simple expresses an action that is still going on or that stopped recently, but has an influence on the present. It puts emphasis on the result. The present perfect progressive expresses an action that recently stopped or is still going on. It puts emphasis on the duration or course of the action. Adverbs frequentlyused For, since, already, ever, never, yet, still, etc. all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week, etc. Example I have written five letters. I have been playing football since 3 oclock.
14. We can use both the present perfect simple and the present perfect continuous to describe an activity that started in the past and continues up to the present and possibly into the future. Ex: They have been studying English for three years. Theyve studied English for three years. We can use the present perfect simple and the present perfect continuous with lately and recently. Ex: Ive been working hard lately. Ive done a lot of work lately.
16. Puttheverbsintothecorrectform(presentperfect simple). 1. Since classes began, I (have, not)_____ much free time. I (have)____ several big tests to study for. 2. The science of medicine (advance)______ a great deal in the 19th century. 3. We (have)_____ three major snowstorms so far this winter. I wonder how many more we will have. 4. I (write)______ them three times, but I havent received a reply. 5. The telephone (ring)_________ four times in the last hours, and each time it has been for my office mate. 6. A: What are you going to order for dinner? B: Well, I (have, never)________ vegeterian pizza, so I think Ill order that. 7. Bill (be)_________ here since 22nd . 8. So far this week, I (have)_________ two tests and a quiz. 9. Alex is an artist. He (draw)______ many beautiful pictures in his lifetime. 10. Fatima (see, never)_________ snow in her entire lifetime.
17. Puttheverbsintothecorrectform(presentperfectprogressive). 1. He (work)___________ in this company since 1985. 2. I (wait)_____ for you since two o'clock. 3. Mary (live)_________ in Germany since 1992. 4. Why is he so tired? He (play)_____ tennis for five hours. 5. How long (learn / you)______ English? 6. We (look for)_______ the motorway for more than an hour. 7. I (live)____________ without electricity for two weeks. 8. The film (run / not)_________ for ten minutes yet, but there's a commercial break already. 9. How long (work / she)_________ in the garden? 10. She (not / be)_________ in the garden for more than an hour.
18. Puttheverbsintothecorrecttense.(presentperfectsimpleor presentperfectprogressive) 1. I (play)_________ football for five years. 2. My team (win / only)_________ two matches so far. 3. The others (be / always)________ better. 4. Are we not there yet? We (walk)________ for hours. 5. But we (cover / only)__________ an area of five miles so far. 6. I (finish/just)_______ my homework. 7. I (work)________ on this essay since two o'clock. 8. Jane (go out)______ with Bob for seven years. 9. Martin (date)________ three girls this week. 10. How long (wait / you)_________ for us?