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<ul><li> 1. H NI - 2009 VN PHNG QUC HITRUNG TM THNG TIN, TH VIN V NGHIN CU KHOA HC*TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GIITUYN TPHIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GII*NH XUT BN THNG K NH XUT BN THNG KH NI - 2009</li></ul><p> 2. VN PHNG QUC HI TRUNG TM THNG TIN, TH VINV NGHIN CU KHOA HCCILRES TUYN TPHIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GII NH XUT BN THNG KH NI - 2009 3. 2 4. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GIILI GII THIUTrong qu trnh xy dng nh nc php quyn x hich ngha nc ta, vic nghin cu, tm hiu hin php cacc nc trn th gii c ngha rt quan trng. Hin phpthng l vn bn thit yu, cha ng nhng quy phm cbn nht ca h thng php lut v t chc b my nh nc vcc quyn c bn ca cng dn. Bn thn cc bn vn hin phpcng cha ng trong nhng gi tr v ngha php l,chnh tr, vn ha, lch s su sc ca tng quc gia. V vy, c nhng bn vn hin php tr nn ph bin, c gi tr thamkho trn phm vi ton cu. p ng nhu cu tm hiu, nghin cu v hin phpcc nc trn th gii ca cc i biu Quc hi cng nh cang o cc chuyn gia, cc nh nghin cu, Trung tm Thngtin, Th vin v Nghin cu Khoa hc, Vn phng Quc hi t chc bin son cun sch: Tuyn tp Hin php ca mt snc trn th gii.Trong nhng n lc u tin, chng ti mnh dn bindch v gii thiu 5 bn Hin php ca cc quc gia: Hp chngquc Hoa K, Lin bang Nga, Nht Bn, Cng ha Php vCng ha nhn dn Trung Hoa. Cc bn hin php ny c lachn trn c s xem xt n yu t a dng v m hnh nhnc, kiu h thng php lut, v tr a l v c mi quan hca cc quc gia ny vi Vit Nam. Ngoi bn vn hin phpca mi quc gia, cun sch ny cng gii thiu cc thng tinc bn v cc quc gia gip cc c gi c iu kin tmhiu thm v bi cnh tn ti ca cc bn hin php. Chng ti hy vng rng cun sch ny s l ti liu thamkho b ch cho cc c gi, nht l cc i biu Quc hi phcv cho qu trnh thc hin cc nhim v ca mnh. 3 5. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GIIQu trnh bin dch v bin son khng trnh khi nhngthiu st, Trung tm Thng tin, Th vin v Nghin cu Khoahc rt mong nhn c s gp ca cc v i biu Quc hiv cc c gi. Nhng gp qu bu s l c s nhngtuyn tp tip theo hon thin hn, phc v hu hiu hn nhucu ca cc v i biu Quc hi v cc c gi. TRUNG TM THNG TIN, TH VINV NGHIN CU KHOA HC4 6. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GII MC LCLI GII THIU......................................................................3HP CHNG QUC HOA K................................................7I. Khi qut v Hp chng quc Hoa K...................................9II. Hin php Hp chng quc Hoa K....................................14III. Cc Tu chnh n trong Hin php Hp chng qucHoa K...................................................................................32LIN BANG NGA.................................................................47I. Khi qut v Lin bang Nga...............................................49II. Hin php nc Cng ha Lin bang Nga .......................54NHT BN............................................................................111Khi qut v t nc Nht Bn.............................................113II. Hin php Nht Bn...........................................................116CNG HA PHP................................................................139Khi qut v Cng ha Php...................................................141II. Hin php ca Cng ho Php........................................144CNG HA NHN DN TRUNG HOA............................183I. Khi qut v Cng ha Nhn dn Trung Hoa...................185II. Hin php nc Cng ha Nhn dn Trung Hoa............189III. Cc ln sa i ca Hin php nc Cng hoNhn dn Trung Hoa............................................................240 5 7. 6 8. HP CHNG QUC HOA K7 9. 8 10. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GIII. KHI QUT V HP CHNG QUC HOA K1 1 - Tn nc: Hp chng quc Hoa k, tn thng gi lHoa K hoc M (United States of America). 2 - Th : Washington D.C. 3 - Quc khnh: Ngy 04 thng 07.4 - Quc k: Quc k Hoa K c hai phn: Mt phn nh gc tri trn cng c hnh nh ca 50 ngi sao trn nn muxanh dng, tng trng cho 50 tiu bang hin ti. Phn chnhgm 7 sc v 6 sc trng, tng trng cho 13 tiu bang skhai. 5- Din tch: 9,631,418 km. 6 - Dn s: 302,782.000 (2007). 7 - Kiu nh nc: Cng ha lp hin.8 - Phn chia hnh chnh: Hp chng quc Hoa K c 50tiu bang v mt qun lin bang gm: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Col-orado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho,Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine,Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi,Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, NewJersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota,Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, SouthCarolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Vir-ginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming vQun Columbia.1. Nhng thng tin trong phn ny c tng hp t Richard C. Schroeder, Khiqut v chnh quyn Hp chng quc Hoa K, (bn ting Vit do Trn Th Thi Hdch), (NXB Chnh tr quc gia, 1999) v trang thng tin the World Factbook caCentre Intelligence Agency. 9 11. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GII9 - ng chnh trH thng hai ng tn ti lu di trong lch s nc Ml ng Cng ha v ng Dn ch. Ngoi hai ng ln ny,cc ng phi khc cng c hot ng tch cc cp lin bangv a phng nh ng t do, ng xanh.10- tui tham gia bu c: t trn18 tui. 11- H thng php lut: H thng php lut Anh M,hay cn gi h thng thng lut.12- B my nh nci) C quan lp php Ngh vin Hoa K l gm hai vin l Thng ngh vinv H ngh vin.Thng ngh vin c 100 ngh s, c bu t cc bang,mi bang c bu 2 ngh s. Mt phn ba s Thng ngh sc bu li c 2 nm mt ln. Nhim k ca Thng ngh sl 6 nm. Ph Tng thng ng nhin l Ch tch Thngngh vin. Nhng ngi c bu lm thng ngh s phi tui t 30 tr ln v c 9 nm l cng dn Hoa K, ngthi khi c bu phi l c dn ca bang m ngi ctuyn chn.H ngh vin gm 435 ngh s c nhim k 2 nm. SH ngh s c bu theo t l s dn mi bang nhng t nhtmi bang phi c 1 ngh s. Ch tch H vin do H vin bura. Nhng ngi c th c bu lm h ngh s phi t 25 tuitr ln v phi l cng dn ca Hoa K t nht 7 nm v vothi im c bu phi l c dn bang m ngi cla chn.ii) C quan hnh phpng u c quan hnh php l Tng thng. Tng thng10 12. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GIIHp chng quc Hoa K do nhn dn bu ra thng qua i ctri on vi nhim k 4 nm nhng khng c ti chc quhai nhim k. iu kin ng c tng thng bao gm: i) phil cng dn Hoa K sinh ra Hoa K; ii) t nht l 35 tui vc tr t nht 14 nm ti Hoa K. Tng thng c nhng quyn hn rng ln iu hnhcng vic quc gia v cc hot ng ca chnh quyn lin bang.Tng thng c th ban hnh cc quy nh, quy ch v ch th,c gi l nhng ch ti hnh php, c hiu lc bt buc ivi cc c quan lin bang m khng cn c s tn thnh caNgh vin. Tng thng c th ph quyt bt k mt d lut no c Ngh vin thng qua v d lut s khng tr thnhlut tr khi c hai phn ba thnh vin trong mi vin ph quyt gt b s ph quyt ca Tng thng. Tng thng l tng chhuy cc lc lng v trang Hp chng quc Hoa K; c thhuy ng cc n v cn v quc gia ca bang phc v cho linbang. Trong thi gian chin tranh hay trong tnh trng khn cp,Ngh vin c th trao cho tng thng nhng quyn thm chcn rng hn na iu hnh nn kinh t quc dn v bo van ninh quc gia.Tng thng b nhim (v Thng vin ph chun) nging u cc b v cc c quan hnh php, b nhim cc vinchc khc gip Tng thng qun tr v thi hnh chnh sch cngnh php lut lin bang.iii) H thng t phpGm c Ta n ti cao (trong cc thm phn cTng thng b nhim vi s chp thun ca Thng vin), 13ta phc thm, 94 ta cc qun v 2 ta xt x c bit.Ta n Ti cao l ta n cp cao nht ca Hp chngquc Hoa K v l ta n duy nht do Hin php c bit lpra. Quyt nh ca Ta n Ti cao th khng th c chuyn 11 13. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GIIln phc thm bt k ta n no khc. Ngh vin c quyn nnh s thm phn trong Ta n Ti cao v vi nhng gii hnc t ra, quyt nh loi v vic no Ta n Ti cao c thxt x, nhng Ngh vin khng th thay i cc quyn m chnhHin php trao cho Ta n Ti cao.Cp cao th hai trong vic xt x lin bang l cc taphc thm, c thit lp t nm 1891 to iu kin thunli cho vic sp xp cc v xt x v gim bt gnh nng choTa n Ti cao. Ngh vin lp ra 12 ta phc thm cho cckhu vc v Ta Phc thm Hp chng quc cho lin bang. Cc ta n phc thm xem xt li cc quyt nh ca tan qun (cc ta xt x vi quyn ti phn lin bang) trongphm vi khu vc ca mnh. Cc ta phc thm cng c quynxem xt li cc lnh ca cc c quan qun l c lp, trongnhng trng hp cc c ch r sot ni b ca cc c quan c s dng ht v vn cn s bt ng ng k i vi nhngquan im php l. Ngoi ra, Ta Phc thm lin bang cquyn ti phn trong c nc - xt x phc thm nhng v cbit, nh nhng v lin quan n lut cp bng sng ch vnhng v c quyt nh bi nhng ta c quyn ti phnc bit, bi Ta Thng mi quc t v Ta n v Cc yusch lin bang.Di cc ta phc thm l cc ta n qun. Nm mibang v lnh th ca Hp chng quc c chia thnh 94qun sao cho nhng ngi lin quan ti vic kin co c thc hng s xt x mt cch d dng. Mi ta n qun ct nht 2 thm phn, nhiu ta c vi thm phn, v nhngqun ng dn nht c hn 2 t thm phn. Tu thuc vocc v th l, mt thm phn ca qun ny c th tm thilm thm phn ca mt qun khc. Ngh vin n nh ngranh gii ca cc qun theo dn s, din tch v khi lngcng vic. Mt s bang nh to thnh mt qun, trong khi12 14. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GIIcc bang ln nh New York, California v Texas, mi bangc bn qun.Hu ht cc v kin tng v tranh chp do nhng ta nqun xt x u lin quan ti nhng sai phm cp lin bangnh lm dng th t, trm cp ti sn lin bang, vi phm cclut v v sinh thc phm, hot ng ngn hng v cc hnh vilm tin gi. y l nhng ta n lin bang duy nht ni cc hithm on ln s kt ti nhng k b buc ti, v cc hithm on nh s quyt nh v no a ra x. Ngoi cc ta n lin bang thuc quyn ti phn chung,i khi Quc hi cng c th thit lp cc ta n cho nhngmc ch c bit. Cc thm phn ca nhng ta n ny, cngging nh ng nghip ca h cc ta n lin bang khc, cnhim k c i, do s b nhim ca tng thng v c sph chun ca Thng vin. Hin nay, c 2 ta n c bit cquyn ti phn trong c nc i vi mt s loi nht nh ccv n. Ta Thng mi Quc t s x nhng v lin quan nthng mi v thu quan quc t. Ta n v Cc yu sch linbang c quyn ti phn i vi hu ht cc yu sch v thit hitin bc i vi Hp chng quc, nhng tranh chp v cc hpng lin bang, nhng vic chnh quyn lin bang chim giti sn ring mt cch khng hp php, v nhiu loi yu schkhc i vi Hp chng quc. 13 15. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GIIII. HIN PHP HP CHNG QUC HOA K2LI M UChng ti, nhn dn Hp chng quc Hoa K, vi mcch xy dng mt Lin Bang hon ho hn na, thit lp cngl, duy tr an ninh trong nc, to dng phng th chung, thcy s thnh vng chung, gi vng nn t do cho bn thn vcon chu chng ta, quyt nh thit lp Hin php ny cho Hpchng quc Hoa K.IU I Khon 1 Ton b quyn lc lp php c tha nhn ti bn Hinphp ny s c trao cho Ngh vin Hoa K. Ngh vin gmc Thng vin v H vin. Khon 2 (1) H vin gm c cc thnh vin c nhn dn ccbang bu ra theo nh k 2 nm mt ln. C tri mi bang phic phm cht cn thit nh l phm cht ca c tri bang cc quan lp php ng o nht.(2) Nhng ngi c th c bu lm h ngh s phi t25 tui tr ln, phi l cng dn ca Hoa K t nht 7 nm vvo thi im c bu phi l c dn bang m ngi c la chn.(3) S lng cc H ngh s v cc loi thu trc thu sc phn b theo cc bang [m c th tnh gp vo trong Linbang ty theo s lng tng ng c xc nh bng cch tnhtng s gm nhng ngi t do, k c nhng ngi lm vic2 . Bn Hin php ny c dch theo bn ting Anh ng ti trn Trang thng tinca H ngh vin Hoa K: http://www.house.gov. Trong qu trnh chuyn ng,chng ti c tham kho bn dch trn Trang thng tin ca i s quan Hoa K tiVit Nam http://vietnamese.vietnam.usembassy.gov/.14 16. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GIItheo thi hn v 3/5 s nhng ngi cn li, khng tnh nhngngi da vn khng np thu]3. Cng vic kim k dn ss c tin hnh trong vng ba nm sau cuc hp u tin caNgh vin Hoa K v sau y c 10 nm mt ln theo lut nh.Mi h ngh s s i din cho khng qu 30.000 ngi nhngmi bang s c t nht mt h ngh s. V trc khi vic thngk v iu tra dn s c tin hnh, th bang New Hampshires c quyn bu ba i biu, bang Massachusetts c butm i biu, bang o Rhodes v Providence Plantations cbu mt i biu, bang Connecticut c bu nm i biu,bang New York c bu su i biu, bang New Jersey bni biu, bang Pennsynvania tm i biu, bang Delaware mti biu, bang Maryland su i biu, bang Virginia mi ibiu, bang Bc Carolina nm i biu, bang Nam Carolina nmi biu v bang Georgia ba i biu. (4) Khi mt v tr h ngh s bt c mt bang no bkhuyt th chnh quyn s ban hnh lnh bu c b sungvo nhng ch trng . (5) H vin s bu ra Ch tch v cc quan chc khc caVin v h l nhng ngi duy nht c quyn n hch4 ccquan chc. Khon 3(1) Thng vin Hoa K gm c hai thng ngh s cami bang [do c quan lp php bang bu ra]5 vi nhim k6 nm v mi thng ngh s s c mt phiu khi biu quyt.3. Phn ca iu khon ny lin quan n hnh thc bu c cc h ngh s cc bangkhc nhau b sa i bi iu 2 ca Tu chnh n XIV; cc ni dung lin quan nnh thu thu nhp c nhn m cha c phn b cng c sa i, b sungtheo Tu chnh n XVI.4 . n hch (impeachment) l hot ng ca c quan lp php xem xt vic bi nhimchc v ca mt quan chc nh nc vi nhng co buc v nhng hnh vi sai tri(Tham kho ti Blacks Law Dictionary, 7th edition, p.755).5. Phn ny c sa i, b sung theo Khon 1 ca Tu chnh n XVII.15 17. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GII (2) Ngay sau khi Thng vin nhm hp sau cuc buc u tin, cc thng ngh s s c phn chia ng uthnh ba cp. Thng ngh s cp 1 s kt thc nhim k vocui nm th hai ca nhim k, thng ngh s cp 2 s kt thcnhim k vo cui nm th t, thng ngh s cp 3 s kt thcnhim k vo cui nm th 6, sao cho sau mi hai nm c thbu li mt phn ba tng s thng ngh s; [v khi c ghkhuyt do thng ngh s t chc hoc nguyn nhn no khctrong thi gian cc c quan lp php ca bang khng hp, thc quan hnh php ca bang c th tm thi b nhim ccv tr ny cho ti khi c quan lp php ca bang nhm hp vquyt nh b sung v tr khuyt ]6. (3) Nhng ngi c bu lm thng ngh s phi t 30tui tr ln, c 9 nm l cng dn Hoa K, ng thi khi cbu phi l c dn ca bang m ngi c tuyn chn.(4) Ph Tng thng Hoa K l Ch tch Thng vin,nhng khng c quyn b phiu, tr trng hp s phiu thunv s phiu chng ngang nhau khi biu quyt.(5) Thng vin la chn nhng quan chc khc caVin v c Ch tch Thng vin Lm thi khi Ph Tng thngHoa K vng mt hoc khi Ph Tng thng m nhn chc vTng thng Hoa K.(6) Thng vin l ni duy nht c quyn thc hin cccuc n hch. Khi nhm hp thc hin nhim v ny, ccthng ngh s s phi tin hnh tuyn th hoc th nguyn.Trong trng hp n hch Tng thng, Chnh n Ta n Ticao s ch ta phin hp. Khng mt ai b xem l c ti nukhng c s ng ca hai phn ba cc thng ngh s c mt.(7) Phn quyt p dng trong nhng cuc n hch ny. Phn ny c sa i, b sung theo Tu chnh n s XVIII.616 18. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GIIkhng vt qu hnh thc cch chc v tc quyn ca b coang m nhn mt chc tc danh d, c li tc hoc c lilc trong chnh quyn Hp chng quc, tuy vy h vn c thb truy t, xt x, kt n v trng pht theo lut nh.Khon 4(1) Thi gian, a im v cch thc tin hnh bu cthng ngh s v h ngh s s do c quan lp php ca mibang qui nh. Nhng vo bt c thi im no, Ngh vin bngcc vn bn lut ca mnh, cng c th t ra hoc thay i ccquy nh , ch tr qui nh v a im bu thng ngh s. (2) Ngh vin s nhm hp t nht mi nm mt ln [khaimc vo ngy th hai u tin ca thng 12]7, tr trng hpNgh vin c quyt nh khc bng mt o lut.Khon 5(1) Mi Vin c thm quyn nh ot v gi tr cuc buc cc thnh vin ca Vin mnh, v kt qu ca cuc bu c vv t cch trng c ca cc ngh s. thc hin cng vic nyi hi phi c a s cc ngh s ca Vin tham gia, nhng vimt s lng cc ngh s t hn th Vin c th hon hp v cth c trao quyn buc cc thnh vin vng mt phi thamgia bng cc phng thc v hnh pht do mi Vin t quy nh.(2) Mi Vin c th t mnh ban hnh quy ch v trnh t,th tc hot ng ca Vin mnh, thi hnh k lut i vi nhngthnh vin c hnh vi sai phm v trc xut thnh vin vi phmkhi c s ng ca hai phn ba s thnh vin.(3) Mi Vin n hnh mt t cng bo xut bn theo nhk cng b v cng vic mnh thc hin tr nhng vic m Vincho l cn phi gi b mt. Nhng phiu thun v phiu chngca cc thnh vin thuc hai Vin v mi vn s c cng7. Phn ny c sa i, b sung theo Tu chnh n s XX. 17 19. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GIIb trn cng bo k...</p>