Arun kc 20150708_1730_upmc_jussieu_-_amphi_25

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  • Are We Ready to Scale-out Climate-Smart Agriculture in South Asia?

    P.K. Aggarwal1, A. Khatri-Chhetri1, P. B. Shirsath1, M.L. Jat2, P.T. Thornton1, A. Jarvis1

    1CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS)

    2International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)

  • South Asia: Home for 40% of Worlds Poor

    Source: World Bank, 2015

    > 1.6 billion people, 2.4% of the worlds land area and 17% of worlds population

    Still has high growth rate of population

    Tremendous progress in last 4 decades

    Food consumption increased from 1900 kcals to > 2500 kcals

    Average GDP growth >6%

    Little food imports now

    Yet, 1/4th of the worlds hungry; 40% of the worlds malnourished children and women

    Lagging in MDGs

    Agriculture important for livelihood security of > 50% population

    Projected to be very vulnerable to climatic risks

    Source: Maplecroft, 2010

  • Drought: 70% land

    Floods: 12% land

    Cyclones: 8% land

    Frost: Northern regions

    Heat: Frequent at many places

    Coastal salinity ingression

    One of the most vulnerable regions to climate change

    Food security and poverty are the key issues

    Climatic Stresses are Common in South Asia High CV of rainfall in Pakistan; northwest and south India

  • Climate Change and Agriculture South Asia is a major hotspot

    Climate change likely to reduce agricultural production by 10-

    50% by 2050 and beyond, if we do not start adapting now.

    Increased production variability due to more frequent droughts,

    floods, and heat events

    Large implications for intra- and inter-national trade.

  • Increasing demand for (quality) food

    Increasing competition for resources

    Increasing degradation of resources

    Increasing climatic risks

    Increasing variability of global supplies, and prices

    Adapting South Asian Agriculture to Climate Change and Declining Resources: Need for CSA

  • Climate-Smart Agriculture

  • Adapting South Asian Agriculture to Climate Change: Key Action Points

    Providing value-added weather services: Weather infrastructure; data protocols, storage, access and dissemination

    Promoting insurance for climatic risk management: scientific and economically validated schemes; weather derivatives; awareness

    http://www.google.co.in/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CAcQjRw&url=http://businesstoday.intoday.in/story/best-banks-in-india-2013-large-bank-hdfc/1/200611.html&ei=MfXBVM2FLqTBmAWQrYL4Dg&bvm=bv.84349003,d.dGY&psig=AFQjCNFmG5EemKpHrwXIkKytav4UuxD6RQ&ust=1422083653698166

  • Facilitating community partnership in food, forage and seed banks: Technical know-how; capital costs; increased acceptance if successive years are more risky

    Improved targeting of technologies and policies: Improved agronomic practices, climate-smart technologies; gender friendliness

  • Identify and exploit potential benefits of climate change: Change in temp zone, increase in rainfall, short duration crops etc.

    Maximize synergies among interventions: Adaptation with mitigation co-benefits, higher yield with improvement in soil, resilience

  • Climate-Smart Village Programme Participatory approach of promoting CSA

    Strategy Integrated farmer participatory

    approach

    Builds on local knowledge and plans

    Precision agronomy principles-sensors

    Use of modern ICT tools

    Capacity strengthening and technology targeting

    For more details visit www.ccafs.org

  • Key Interventions in a Climate-Smart Village

  • Typical Partners of CSVs

    Farmer groups

    Buyers

    Input suppliers

    Rural ICT company

    Insurance company

    Meteorological agency

    Local governments, CBOs, NGOs

    Researchers (NARS, Universities,

    CGIAR)

  • Outputs of CSV Programme

  • CSAPs Portfolios in CSVs: Some Evidences From Field Scale Technology Yield

    gain/loss

    (kg/ha)

    Economic

    gains/loss

    (USD NR/ha)

    Water saving

    (M3/ha)- for

    water smart

    practice

    Energy

    Saving

    (MJ/ha)

    Increase in

    NUE (as

    kg/kg)

    Reduction in

    GHG (CO2-e

    kg/ha)

    Zero tillage in

    wheat (without

    residue)

    342 131 414 3040 1.44 1507 (from

    LCA)

    Zero tillage with

    residue in wheat

    468 190 550 2650 1.61 ?

    Permanent beds

    in maize/wheat

    195 289 1650 ? 1.33 ?

    Direct seeded

    rice

    +150 136 3000 ? - 420 (based

    on soil flux

    only)

    Improved water

    management

    375 97.51 405 ? 1.40 -

    Nutrient Expert in

    wheat

    500 104 - ? 10 200

    Laser leveling

    (RW system)

    600 130 2500 ? ? 330

    Source: Jat et al (2014)

  • Initial Achievements 1. Evidences of CSVs: Impact on yield, income, inputs use and GHG

    emissions. Source: Jat et al. 2014, Aryal et al. 2015, Sapkota et al. 2014, Aryal et al. 2014 Khatri-Chhetri et al, 2015 (accepted), Sapkota et al 2015 (accepted)

    2. Development of partnership: Strengthening collaboration among researchers, local government and farmers organizations for participatory evaluation of diverse CSA technologies in farmers fields.

    3. Investment and scaling out/up: International organizations, national and state governments have shown keen interest to invest and scale out CSV approach in various locations, Example: India (Maharashtra, Haryana), Nepal (IFC, CDKN) and Bhutan.

    4. Development of portfolio of interventions in the CSVs: integration of seed, water, nutrient, energy, insurance and ICT

  • Challenges for Scaling out CSA through CSV

    1. Financial: Investment in CSA interventions by smallholders

    2. Policy: Integration of CSA/CSV into current policies and schemes relating to agricultural development and climate change

    3. Social: Inclusion of marginalized and socially disadvantage groups

  • Are We Ready..?

    1. National and state governments have shown keen interest to invest and scale out CSA/CSV appraoch

    2. High potential of converging policies/programs around climate change adaptation in agriculture

    3. More evidence needed for synergies in different agro-ecological enviornments

    4. While business models for some interventions such as ICT exisit, they need to evolve for CSVs

  • Questions

    Answers &