ד"ר שירלי ורנר: פרויקט "שווים במדים" – השפעתו על עמדות חיילים ללא מוגבלות כלפי חיילים עם מוגבלות

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    13-Apr-2017

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<ul><li><p>Equal in Uniform": Its impact on attitudes of soldiers without disabilities toward soldiers with intellectual disabilities</p><p>Dr. Shirli Werner Paul Baerwald School of Social Work and Social Welfare, Hebrew UniversityResearch funding: The Shalem Fund for Development of Services for People with Intellectual disabilities in the Local CouncilsBeit Issie Shapiro's 6th International Conference on Disabilities: Unity and Diversity in ActionJuly 7-8, 2015 Tel-Aviv, Israel</p></li><li><p>Current legislation and policies advocate for full and effective social inclusion and community participation of all individuals with disabilities (including ID).In Israel, military service is a mandatory and normative civil obligation. It is integral for integration within the Israeli society. Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) as a national melting pot.However, individuals with ID are usually exempt from military service.</p><p>Background</p></li><li><p>Equal in UniformSince 2007, the project Equal in Uniform has brought to the recruitment of individuals with ID.</p><p>Project partners: (1) Akim Israel(2) Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services(3) IDF</p></li><li><p>Data in this study collected from 9 training programs across the country.117 individuals began the programs110 finished the training program86 moved to volunteer (24 dropped)57 meet criteria to enlist (26 dropped + 3 await)43 already drafted, 9 about to be drafted (5 dropped)22 have finished military service</p><p>Equal in Uniform in numbers</p></li><li><p>Equal in Uniform</p><p>Aims(1) Opportunity for people with ID to enlist and complete regular and meaningful military service.</p><p>(2) Enhance self-esteem and confidence.</p><p>(3) Psychological benefits to other family members.</p><p>(4) Change in societal attitudes towards individuals with ID.</p><p>Rationale: Allow people with ID to take part in this central life experience according to their abilities and needs.</p><p> Bring contact between people with ID and others within the Israeli society.</p></li><li><p> 239 Soldiers without ID (130 female)</p><p>Average age 20.3 (Range 18-45)</p><p>154 were familiar with a soldier with ID</p><p>Subjective knowledge in ID: M=2.75 (from 1 to 5)Methods: Participants</p></li><li><p>Self-complete questionnaire:Attitudes toward soldiers with ID: Based on the Multidimensional Attitudes Scale (Findler et al., 2007): vignette, 13 cognitive items, 19 affective items, 10 behavior items, 4 social distance items</p><p>Imagine the following situation: Joseph and a few friends went for lunch within their military dinning room. While they are speaking, a soldier with ID that Joseph is not familiar with joins the crowd. A short introduction is made between the two, following which all other friends have to leave. Joseph needs to wait 15 more minutes for a friend. Methods: Instrument</p></li><li><p>2. Attitudes toward allowing people with disabilities to serve within the IDF?</p><p>3. Attitudes toward the inclusion of soldiers with ID: 12 items</p><p>4. Familiarity with soldier with ID, subjective knowledge in ID</p><p>5. Background informationMethods: Instrument</p></li><li><p>Results: Support of service of people with disabilities (t-test)</p><p>Type of disabilitySoldiers with familiaritySoldiers without familiarityMild physical disability3.763.37*Intellectual disability3.782.76***Deafness3.122.56**Severe physical disability3.092.60**Epilepsy3.072.60**Blindness2.762.29*Mental illness2.361.94**</p></li><li><p>Results: Correlations with knowledge and familiarity (R)</p><p>Degree of familiarity with a soldier with IDSubjective knowledge in IDWish for more knowledge in IDPositive thoughts .25**.15*.35***Not understanding social situationNegative affect -.22*Withdrawal Behavior -.18*-.17*Helping and accepting Behavior .39***.28***Social closeness .49***.19**.44***Support of service .21*.32***Important to integrate soldiers w/ID .36***.19*.45***Soldiers with ID similar to others .26***.14*Need to separate soldiers with ID -.31***-.30***</p></li><li><p>Results: Correlations between attitudes toward soldiers and attitudes towards their inclusion in the IDF (R)</p><p>Important to integrate soldiers with IDSoldiers with ID are similar to othersNeed to separate soldiers with IDPositive thoughts.51***.45***-.31***Not understanding social situation.10.06.11Negative affect-.15*-.10.20**Calm affect.15*.08-.13*Withdrawal behavior-.25***-.15*.26***Helping and accepting behavior.36***.28***-.31***Social closeness.62***.42***-.58***Support of service.57***.37***-.41***</p></li><li><p>Results: Hierarchical regression predicting behavior (4th step)</p><p>Withdrawal ()</p><p>R=34.4%Helping + accepting ()R=40.4%Social closeness ()R=56.2%Wish for more knowledge-.07.05.11Positive thoughts-.14.44***.17*Not understanding social situation.16*-.00-.01Negative affect.38***-.10.08Calm affect-.02-.03.04Important to integrate soldiers w/ID-.12.00.17*Soldiers w/ID are similar to others.04.02.13*Need to separate soldiers with ID.04-.09-.33***Support of service.01.11.13*</p></li><li><p>Inclusion within IDF had a positive influence on attitude change.Familiarity resulted in reduction of fear and social discomfort in meetings. Support that social contact is the most helpful intervention for attitude change.</p><p>Discussion</p></li><li><p>IDF is a central body in the Israeli society. Including soldiers with ID is a social statement of these individuals being an integral part of society.</p><p>As most individuals in Israel serve in the IDF, this is an opportunity for meeting with wide sectors of society.</p><p>Discussion</p></li><li><p>ConclusionContact should be carefully planned with different soldiers with ID and those that contradict common stereotypes. Extend the program.Results should be seen in light of interviews with soldiers with ID + commanders.Is full social inclusion possible?Is it more useful to integrate soldiers with ID on their own or within a small group?What types of roles should be provided to soldiers with ID to be considered equal?</p></li><li><p>Out in 2016 Left Out: Intellectual Disability &amp; Stigma</p><p> Katrina Scior &amp; Shirli Werner (Eds)</p><p>Palgrave Macmillan </p></li></ul>