אנטומיה דר צבי נאמן

  • Published on
    18-May-2015

  • View
    3.118

  • Download
    5

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

<ul><li> 1. quot; .CD Baromir ,Public ,Laboratory . 60.01.22 .1. - Cell , , . .Organelle 01 41 03-01 . 1.0 2.0 ) (. , .Differentiation .2. - Tissue . .Intra cellular matrix . -. - Epithelium . . Connective . . .Muscular. .Nerve3. - Organ ), ( .4. System . , . . Integumentary . , ' . , . , .D Support and movement . - .Skeletal System . .Muscular System - Communication Control and Integration . .Nerve System </li></ul><p> 2. . Endocrine . Transportation and Defense . - Cardiovascular . - lymphatic System Processing and Maintenance. .Digestive System. .Respiratory System . - .Urinary System . .Reproductive System . .Body Cavities , . :1. Dorsal , : . Cranial . . Spinal . 2. Ventral , :. Thoracic . : Pleura . .Mediastinum. Apdominuopelvic : , , , , , . Cytology . ,Cell Membrane .Cytoplasm ) (. - Selective , . . 2 - 6002/01/92 Hydrophilic . -Hydrophobic . 3. , , , . . quot; : . . . : ) 1. (. - 2. .3. .4. . 5. . 6. 1. Endoplasmic Reticulum , quot; , :. Rough RER ) (. - DNA. . Smooth SER . 4. 2. ' . .Vesicle , 2 . . , ) ( , . : . Phagocytosis )( .Pinocytosis , . ' . 3. Lysosome '. , , . !.4. Mitochondria , . . .Matrix )( . 5. .Anabolism .Catabolism .ATP ATP . , .ATP 1. Cytoskeleton , , .Cell Fibers. Microfilaments . Intermediate filaments . . Microtubule - 2 . . . . 3 - 6002/11/50 . ) (, ) (Nucleus Nucleolus . 6. DNA . - Deoxyribonucleic Acid ) (. . - .DNA , , ) (. DNA ).(Gene- DNA 32 . . - DNA - 4 :. A T C G , , quot; 02 . DNA - DNA. DNA .RNA- RNA )RNA ( . - RNA . ) (. - .Translation - DNA , . . , - DNA, - .RNA- RNA T .U 7. RNA1. .Messenger RNA2. RRNA.3. TRNA .Transfer :1. - DNA .2. - mRNA ) ( .3. - mRNA -tRNA quot;quot; ) (Anticodon .DNA 4. - tRNA - DNA )02 - 02 .(tRNA - tRNA . 5. quot;quot; - DNA. , . quot;quot; . . 8. , - 2. .S , Mitosis , Meiosis 32 , 32 . Haploid .Diploid :22-1 .Autosomes32 X sexchromosoms- .Y )( XX )( ,XY . 9. , , . .Endothelium . , . 1. .2. 3. . 4. . 5. . 3 : 1. .2. , Basement.Membrane 3. . . 011 411 .Cell reproductionMitosisMeiosis 4 - 6002/11/21 : :1. . 2. 3. Simple 1. Stratified 2. ) (.3. 10. : .1. )2.(. , 3. . , , 4. . ) (. : Exocrine ) 1. (. -Endocrine : 2.. . : Merocrine ' - ,Exotisosic .1. - Apocrine , 2. , . . - Holocine 3. . 11. 1. Keratinize . , . . .Keratin 2. - None Keratinize )(Mucosa . . Inter Cellular Junction 1. Gap junctions2. .Demosomes 3. Tight Junctions Connective Tissue ), , ( : 1. .2. '.3. : ,Collagan , . . 12. 1. - . 2. . 3. . , . 13. Skeletal System , Bone &amp; Joint .Articulation 1. . 2. .3. . 4. -Hematopoiesis . 5. , '. - 4 : , , , . . , . , . . 5 - 6002/11/91 . . . - Periost , . Osteoblast . Endosteum , .Osteoclasts 02 .1. EPIPHYSIS 2. DIAPHYSIS 3. - .MARROW CAVITY 14. .1. - .2. .Epiphysis Osteon .Haversian System . . , . Lacuna Osteocyte . , Canaliculum . 15. )( ,Spongy , . . quot; , . 21 , , . - Ossification ) (. . . , . , . - Osteoblast Osteoclast / )(Remodeling , , . 16. 602 - 2 :1. 80 Axial: . 82 :. - 8 . . 41. . 6. . 42. . 42.. 2 .. .. .Hyloid2. 126 Appendiculum . 1. , 2. , 3. )'(. - Articulations , : Immovable , :1. . Suture )( ) (, : . . -Gomophosis -.. Syndesmosis )( , . Slightly Movable , . 2. . Syncondrosis , )(. . - Symphisis , , . Freely Movable , Synovial 3. - . , ,Capsule ) (. 17. . 6 - 6002/11/62 , , . . , . , quot; quot;. , '. 1. .2. , . 3. . ) ( , . , . Patella . 31 Bursa . 18. : , . : 1. .uniaxial - Hinge .i Pivot .ii, .2. Biaxial Saddle .i, . Condyloid .ii Atlas- .Axis 3. .Multiaxial Ball and Socket .i , , . Gilding .ii , . 19. Muscular , , , . : 1. .Smooth2. .Striated3. .Cardiac , .Myofibrils , . . : 1. : , , .2. . 3. , .4. . . . . - , : 1. .2. , .3. . , )(Fascicle ) (Fiber . . . 20. 01 -001 . 004:1 , . ) ,(Sarcolemma )(Sarcoplasm Myofibrils )( . Myofibrils .Sarcoplasmic reticulum Myofibrils . Tubular System Myofibrils- ) Sarcoplasmic reticulum Triad T (. 21. Sarcomere - Myofibrils Myofibrils , .Sarcomere : 1. Thickfilament 2. Thinfilament . , - Sarcommere 22. 7 6002/21/30 : , . , , , , . Sarcomere Troponin . 1. Tropomyosin , 2.. , , . - .Sacroplasm T Sacroplasm . ,Troponin , - Tropomyosin . , , . . ATP , . 23. .1. .2. Tonic .a . , . )( Isotonic .b , ) ( Isometric .c ) , (. Twitch .d . : (.3. ) All or none (. . : .a . .b . .c ,ATP . - .ATP .d .4. , quot; , . .5. quot; . Prime Mover .Antagonist .Synergist Digestive System . . . , , . , . . .1. . 2. .3. . 4. .5. . . ,Gastrointestinal Tract .Alimentary Canal . 24. 1. Mouth. 2. . .Oropharynx3. Esophagus. 4. Stomach. 5. Small Intestine . Duodenum .a. Gegumum .b . Ileum .c .6. Large Intestine -Cecum .a . Colon .b, . Rectum .c. 7. Anus . Accessory Organs Teeth. 1. Tongue.2. Salivary Glandas 3. Parotid .a . - Sub Mandibula .b . Sub Lingual .c . Liver.4. Gallbladder 5. - pancreas 6. - appendix 7. 25. 8 - 6002/21/01 )( 1. , quot; quot; .Mucosa .2. Sub Mucosa . 3. Muscularis . quot; .a Circularis. .b . 4. Serosa, . . 26. - 59 , - 5 . . -Parotid . 1. Sub Mandibular .2. Sub Lingual .3. ) ( . . - +Parotid++Sub Mandibular+-Sub Lingual . Parotid . Sub Mandibula 2 Sub Lingual , . 27. - Esophagus , . . , . , , . ) (. , , . 3/2 , , - 3/2 ) (. 52 . 28. Stomach .Fundus ,Pylorus . , quot;quot; . , . sphincter . quot;quot;, , . , quot; .: 1. , . , . 2. , , . . - , . 1. . 2. . 3. 4. .Serosa , . 29. : 1. .Chief Cells 2. Parietal HCL, - PH . 3. .4. . 3 , . . 5.2 6 . 52 . . - . . . . 30. , Folds ,Plica Villus ) (. . Microvilli .Brush Boarder 061 . 58 . , . 31. 6 , 8.1-5.1 , : Cecum 1. Culum 2. .a .Ascending Colon .b .Transverse colon .c .Descending colon .d - ~ .Sigmoid02 .Anal canal3. 1. . 2. , -3 / . . , . . 32. 9 - 6002/21/42 Physiology of digestive system 367 177. Control . . Cardiovascular system , . , . : 1. .a , . Megakaryocytes .b . . 2. , . .a. .b. .c. - Pleura . , , . , . ) (. , )03/1( 003/1. 522 , - 013 . Pericard .1. .2. ) ( :1. Epicard . ) (. 2. Myocard . 3. Endocard , Endothelium , ) (. . 33. , : 1. .2. . , Ventricle .Atrium . . , . ) ( . 34. :1. . 2. .3. , .4. . 5. - . 6. , 7. . : 1. ,Arteries .2. Veins . 3. Capillaries , '. . )( - 2) CO( - . : 1. AV - Artioverticular valves 2. . 35. AV - . , . . . Semi lunar , . , , , . . 36. - Aorta ,Coronary Arteries- Aorta . ) +(. , . ) (Anastemoses . , , . .Bypass , . .4 : SA Node .Pace Maker , AV node- AV .- AV ) (AV Bundle ) (Purkinji . quot; . 37. , . . .Anteries Arterioles - Veins Venules .1. - Tunica Adventitia External2. Tunica Media . 3. Tunica Interia Endothel . . . , .Elastica .Semiluna , . 11 - 6002/21/13 - Endothel . 38. . . , . . . 39. Precapillary Sphincter . , , 01 11. 000,001 . Aurta , , 40. , . ,Carotid . Carotid , Internal Carotid - .External Carotid quot; . - - 2.CO . - Vena Cava ) (Sinus . , , . 41. . . , . . . . . . . . , . . , . 42. . :1. .2. . , . , . 1. . 2. - , . . , . . , :1. Cardioaccelerating Center ,, . 2. CardioInhibitory Center -, Ach . quot;, . 43. )( , , , . . . :1. Cardiac Output Stroke Vol. * Heart Beat . .2. Peripheral Resistance : .a . .b . 21 - 7002/10/70 , , , , , , . , . - ,mmGH .1. . , . .a . .b . 2. Systolic 3. -Diastolic .4. ) ( 5. 0 . , , . 44. quot; , , . : 1. Cardiac Presso Reflex , . :1. ) ( .baroreceptors2. . 45. 3. . quot; , ) (, , .2. Vasomotor Presso reflex . . . . . , . quot; --&lt; --&lt; --&lt; ! :1. . 2. . 3. .4. .5. Cardio Output. 6. quot;. 3. Vasomaotor Chemoreflex . ) 2 ,(CO . , . 46. . .4. 5. Medullary Ischemic Netex , . , . . 4 - 5 . . : 1. . 2. , , )( . , ) (. 1. Systolic .2. Diastolic . . , )( , , - ,Systolic , . Pulse Pressure . . . . - Systolic - Diastolic . 47. , : : 1. .2. . , . . , , ' , , ) (. ' 1. ) , (2. .3. , ) (. 4. , , 8 -01 51. ,125ml . 48. 1. . 2. . 3. .4. .a. .b. .Thymus .c , . ' , , , . , , , . . , . , . 49. , , , : 1. Right Lymphatic Ducts . 2. - Toracic duct . . , Afferent Duct .Efferent - 02 , . : 1. Hematopoiesis , , . ,Germinal Centers . 2. , ) ' (. . 50. 1. Tymus . . . , . quot; .2. - . . : 1. )( .2. . 3. , )053-002(. 4. 021-001 . , .5. 51. , ' , quot; . 6 : 1. .Nose 2. pharynx3. Larynx 1. - Trachea 2. - Bronchi 3. -Lungs Nose 3 quot;quot;. 3 .Concha ) (, . Respiratory Epithelium , . :1. . 2. Cilia . , . ) Mucociliary Clearance, ( . . . 1. , . 2. , , . 52. 3. .4. . , .Larynx . . . ) (C . , ) ( , , . - Bronchi .1. . 2. . 3. .4. Terminal Bronchi 53. , . 41 - 7002/10/12 Bronchial Tree . Bronchiole . Alveolar Duct . Alveolar Sack Alveoli . - .Pleora . 3 , 2 . . 01 8. 54. Alveoli . . - Alveoli , . - Respiratory membrane .Alveolus . Surfactant . ) (. :1. . 2. . . 55. Ventilation, : 1. Inspiration.a .Expiration.b = P*V= C 2. , . ) (. , , . , . - 6 . quot; - 457 quot; . , 757. , , . - 657, - 367. 3 . 3 . . ?1. , . , . , 001 . 56. . .Spirometer .TV Tidal Volumes 1. . IRV...</p>