История развития компьютерной техники

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  • 1. 3000 .. 500 .. , , . 4 .. . , . , , . 409-325 .. . 300 .. . 276-195 . .. , .

2. 9 .. - - ( 820 .), - - ( ), , . 9-10 - , . , XVII . 15 - . . 1457 - (Gutenberg). 1494 - , (Luca Pacioli, 1445-1517) : " , , ", , " " . . - . . . 1510 . 3. 16 () - 13- . XX ., . 1614 - , 1614 . " ", , . , . 1622 - (William Oughtred) . 1630 - . 4. 1623-1624 - , (Wilhelm Schickard) . " ", . 1642 - (Blaise Pascal, 1623- 1663 .) , . - . 5. 1673 - (Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, 1646-1716 .) , , , . - . 1723 - . . , . 1700 - " ", ( ) , . " ". 1727 - 1727 (Jacob Leupold) , . 6. 1801 - (Joseph-Marie Jacquard) . , , . 1815 - (George Boole, 1815- 1864) - , (. 1847 .). 1820 - . . 1784 - 200 . . (1746-1830). , , , . . 7. 1833 - (Charles Babbage, 1792-1871 .) (Analytical Machine), , . . ( 1832) : ) "" (store) ( , ); ) "" (mill) ; ) , ( , ); ) . 2 . , 1831 . 8. 1836 - (Samuel Finley Breese Morse, 1791-1872) . 1842 - (Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace) . 1847 - (George Boole, 1815-1864) "The Mathematical Analysis of Logic" (" "), , . 1855 - (George & Edvard Scheutz) , . . 9. (1846-1905), -, . 1870 , .-, . .. . ; ; , XX ; , . 1874 - , ( ). 250 . .. "-" 1857 - 10. 1892 - , , 1892 ( ) " ". (18471922) 1876 - (Alexander Graham Bell) . 1878 - , . 11. 1896 - (Herman Hollerith, 1860-1929) Tabulating Machine Company, IBM. 1890 . 1980- () ., 1897 . . () Scientific American, 1902, April, 19. 12. 1927 - (MIT) . 1928 - (CRT). 1919 . , . 1923 " ". . 20 1938 , . . 13. 1936 - (A. Turing) , . . 1937 - (George Stibitz) Bell Telephone Laboratories. (George Stibitz) Model V 14. 1938 - (Konrad Zuse), 1935 . , , Z1. ( Helmut Schreyer). . . Verker und Technik . , . (1910-1985) 1940 - Z2, . 1941 - Z3. 2600 . Z3 - . Z-1 (1938 .) - - Z2 Z3 Z4, 1942-1945 15. 1939 - . 538 . Hewlett Packard 1939 - (Bill Hewlett Dave Packard). . , HP, 11 . 1984 HEWLETT-PACKARD . " ", . 16. 1942 - (Iowa State University) (John Atanasoff) (Clifford Berry) ( ) (Atanasoff-Berry Computer - ABC). ( ), , , , ENIAC. (04.10.1903 - 15.06.1995) ABC - . . 1937 , 1939 . 17. 1942 - (Wallace John Eckert, 19021971). - , . 1934 . IBM - (18741956), , (calculation control switch) Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, PSRC IBM (Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, PSRC). , () Type 604 18. 1943 - 1939 ., 1943- , , , , . 14 1944 . VIP-. (Howard Hathaway Aiken, 1900--1973), 24- . , 23- (). ASCC ( ): . , . , . , ( ASCC) ASCC (IBM-ASCC-1944-1) (Howard Hathaway Aiken, 1900--1973), 19. 1946 - 55 , 1 1946 , ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). , 30 , . -- , . , , , , . ENIAC -- . . () . -. ENIAC 2 ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) 20. 1948 - ", ", . "" -- , , . (26.11.1894 - 18.03.1964 ) 1948 - . . , , . , ( .). 8 1957. 21. (Shannon) (1916 2001) . , . , . , . 1950 , . . IEEE "", . 50- , " " "": "" "", 50%, - , . 1956 Bell Labs , 1978 . , , , . (Shannon) (1916 2001) 22. , , . 23. , 50- . . , , . . , - , . . - , , . 10-20 . ". "" 24. () 1946 . . (Julian Himely Bigelow, 19132003). IAS ( : , , , ) JONNIAC IAS IAS ; 2500 39- . 44 , : , 12 . 400 28 . IAS 10 1952 . 25. 1949 . : [] (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator, EDSAC). () EDSAC : , 0,5 , 32 1,5 512 , , 1,4; 5,4 200 ; 5- , . 3000 , 12 20 . 26. DEUCE Pilot ACE Pilot ACE DEUCE (Digital Electronic Universal Computing Engine) English Electric Company Ltd. (EEC). 1949 ., Pilot ACE, . Pilot ACE 800 (!) 1 M; , 32 . - British Tabulating Machine Co. (BTM); 200 100 . : , . 27. National-Elliott 405 Elliott 401 Elliott Brothers, (William Elliott) XIX ( ). 1952 . PEGASUS ( 1955 .) (1916-1975) 28. 1952 - 70X/70XX , IBM. 1952 60-, , System/360. 600/650 , , , . 7090 Mercury Gemini , Fortran ( 03.12.1924 []) (usa) IBM 701, , - 1951 - Whirlwind . Whirlwind 29. 1950 - ( ..). , 3600 , 2500 60 .. - 25 . , . -1 . . 30. -2 - . . . 1952 . . . . . -2 -2 -2 "" 31. , 1955-65 . , . . -, , . . , . -6 , : - . 32. 60-x . , , , , "" . , , . , .. . , . . , .. . IBM-360. 33. - 1971 - - . . : , , . - - . : -1. - 8 . - 144 -1. - 64- 256 . . 7.25 . 32 . . - 155 ( -2). . -1020 -1020 34. - 1983 - - . . : , , . - - . : -1035 . : ECL -500 ( ), 16 . -1036 35. , 1970 . . , . 36. IBM PC XT 37. , (, ). "" , . , , , , . 5- . ,

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