פיתוח בר קיימא ביקורות

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<ul><li><p>- </p></li><li><p>- </p><p> , </p><p>. </p></li><li><p>- </p><p>Sustaining Cities \ Joseph Leitman (1999)</p><p> 3 : </p><p>3. Ecological- Footprint </p><p>5. " "Wealth</p><p>7. </p></li><li><p>- </p><p>E c o lo g ic a l F o o t p r in t </p><p> " " ?</p><p> " " Strong Sustainability .</p><p>? </p><p> \ \ ?</p><p> ? : ? </p><p> . ?</p><p> . </p></li><li><p>- </p><p>E c o lo g ic a l F o o t p r in t </p><p> . </p><p>. ... , " " : </p><p> , . , , : .</p><p> \ . , : </p><p> , ( ). </p><p> : , </p><p>. . </p><p>. </p></li><li><p>- </p><p>E c o lo g ic a l F o o t p r in t </p><p> : - 4.3 , </p><p>. </p><p> , , </p><p> . </p></li><li><p>- </p><p> :</p><p>.: </p><p> 2 . 3 C - O 2 . 2 . , , ) - )</p><p>0 - . . \ 75 5 "- 0 . = </p><p>4 7 2 , 0 0 0 . : </p><p>: , </p><p> X 5 = 4 7 2 , 0 0 0 2 . 3 6 m il l io nh e c t a r e s</p><p>2 0 "" 0. </p><p>? </p><p>, . ) )</p></li><li><p>- </p><p>S u s t a in in g t h e p r o d u c t io n o f w e a lt h </p><p>. " ."</p><p> : , </p><p> . . </p><p> " " . </p><p> : </p><p> , , , .</p><p> . </p><p> , , , </p><p> " " .</p></li><li><p>- </p><p> -W e a lt h : , . . . </p></li><li><p>- </p></li><li><p>- </p><p> -W e a lt h </p><p> , </p></li><li><p>- </p><p>S u s t a in in g t h e P r o d u c t io n o f W e a lt h - </p><p> \ " " ?</p><p>" " -The Sum of an Economys produced assets, natural capital and human resources. </p><p> , .</p><p> ? </p><p> . </p><p> : . </p><p> ? ? " ? " ?</p></li><li><p>- </p><p>S u s t a in in g t h e P r o d u c t io n o f W e a lt h - </p><p> : . </p><p> " "" " , ? , (WC) </p><p>, " " . Income Growth- </p><p> \ ( ). </p><p> : \\ . </p><p>. </p><p> ( \ : ) + .</p><p> , , , Wealth ? , </p><p> " " .</p></li><li><p>- </p><p> ? ?</p></li><li><p>- </p><p> " " </p><p> , : .(David Satterthwaite) </p><p> , . , . </p><p>. . . , , : . . . . </p></li><li><p>- </p><p>: </p><p> ? </p><p> ? </p><p> : , </p><p> ? </p><p>, , . . </p><p> . </p></li><li><p>- ? </p></li><li><p>- </p><p>Wilfred Beckerman \ Sustainable Development: Is it a Useful Concept ? (Journal of Environmental Values (3) Autumn 1994 p. 191</p><p> " " . </p><p> , , . </p><p> , , . </p><p> : What are socially responsible goals ?...how far should we protect the resource </p><p>base, whatever that means and what are the legitimate interests of future generations that have to be protected?</p></li><li><p>- </p><p>Wilfred Beckerman \ Sustainable Development: Is it a Useful Concept ?</p><p> ? ) : ( VS</p><p> - Maximization of Welfare</p><p>. , , " " .</p><p> One is always free to define Welfare as he wishes . " " " " </p><p> , . , " " </p><p> " " . </p></li><li><p>- </p></li><li><p>- </p><p>If unsustainability were really regarded as a reason for a rejecting a project there would be no mining, and no industry. The world would be a very primitive place. </p><p>(Wilfred Beckerman ,1994) </p></li><li><p>- </p><p>- </p><p>? </p></li><li><p>- </p><p>. </p><p> .</p></li><li><p>- </p></li><li><p>- </p></li><li><p>- </p></li><li><p>- </p></li><li><p>- - / </p></li><li><p>- </p><p>, : , , , .</p></li><li><p>- </p></li><li><p>- </p></li><li><p>- </p></li><li><p>- - : </p></li><li><p>- </p><p> : 1 9 8 8</p><p>1 9 8 91 9 9 0 -2 0 0 52 0 0 5</p></li><li><p>- </p><p>: - ; </p><p> , .</p></li><li><p>- </p></li><li><p>- </p></li><li><p>- </p></li><li><p>- </p></li><li><p>- </p><p>Modernity and the Reclamation of PlaceEdward Relph</p></li><li><p>- </p><p>H y p e r p la n n in g &amp; C o r p o r a t iz a t io n</p><p> -" " , " </p><p>, , , , , </p><p> , (Mumford) </p><p> " </p><p> , , , </p><p> , </p><p> , The perfection of Art in an Americans eyes would be attained by the invention of a self-acting machine which should produce plans of cities and designs...</p><p>James Fergusson, 1862Masdar City, United Arab Emirates</p></li><li><p>- </p><p> : </p><p> , : </p><p>, , , '</p><p> , , </p><p>Treasure Island, San Francisco</p><p>Masdar City, United Arab Emirates</p></li><li><p>- " "</p><p> " " </p><p> = </p><p> , = </p><p> " '" Dongtan Ecocity, China</p></li><li><p>- </p><p> -e c o c it y " ? " " </p><p> , , </p><p> Top-down approach </p><p> " "</p><p> ? Masdar City, UAE</p></li></ul>