Context-aware design and interaction in ccccccccccccomputer ...

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  • 1. Context-aware design and interaction in computer systems By T.Selker, W.Burleson IBM SYSTEMS JOURNAL, Vol 39, NOS 3&4, 2000 : (EECS, 20005846)
  • 2. Contents
    • Introduction
    • Framework
      • Task model
      • User model
      • System model
    • Design prototypes of context-aware systems
      • Noncomputational models
      • Context-aware computer systems
        • Sensor-based systems
        • Multifunction systems
        • Proactive model-based systems
    • Conclusion
  • 3. Introduction (1/2)
    • The fields of design and computer science are beginning to merge
      • Macintosh vs. iMac
      • Aesthetics, ergonomics and cognitive science are important factor in user interface design
    • Traditional design paradigm is broadening the structured design process for human computer interfaces
      • Engineering design paradigm
        • Break the problems down into parts and apply the standard solutions
      • Traditional design paradigm
        • Promote aesthetics, ergonomics, and their relationships to functions
  • 4. Introduction (2/2)
    • Issues of contextual interaction and knowledge about peoples desired activities and actions affect the design process
    • Contextual information can be used to reduce the amount of explicit input a person is required to give a computer
      • What and where the user task is
      • What the user knows
      • What the system capabilities are
    • New technologies open possibilities for context-aware systems
      • Development of new and sophisticated sensors
      • Recognition technology
  • 5. Framework
    • Task model
      • The acts that a person performs to accomplish a task with a system
        • Ex) task at the threshold ~ open a door, See if someone is inside
    • User model
      • Task-relevant background information about the user
      • User comfort and user congruency depends on his habit, self-image, and even issues of motivation
    • System model
      • Refer to the capabilities of the computer system its structure and ability to accomplish an existing task
  • 6. Design prototypes of context-aware systems (1/6)
    • Noncomputational models
    • Out-Of-Box Experience
    • Task model
    • - The p erson is setting up a notebook computer
    • User model
    • - A novice opening a computer for the first time
    • System model
    • - The paper instructions are near the components they describe and are revealed as the person opens the computer
  • 7. Design prototypes of context-aware systems (2/6)
    • Sensor-based systems (1)
    • Flexor
    • Task model
    • - Recognized contextual communication through arm motion
    • User model
    • - Arm movement
    • System model
    • - Arm-bending sensor to evaluate motions made by arm
    • 1) dancing flashes a varying sequence of lights & sounds
    • 2) exercising counts how many repetitions have been completed
  • 8. Design prototypes of context-aware systems (3/6)
    • Sensor-based systems (2)
    • Digital Threshold
    • Task model
    • - Two-way interaction with the office task model and office occupant model
    • 1) bringing someone in
    • 2) rescheduling a meeting
    • 3) leaving a message
    • User model
    • - W alks by in order to find out if a colleague is in his office
    • System model
    • - Relies on two switches(inside & outside)
    • - Coupling to voice recognition & Microsoft Office
  • 9. Design prototypes of context-aware systems (4/6)
    • Multifunction systems (1)
    • IBM ThinkPad 755CV
    • Task model
    • - Work differently for two diverse situations
    • 1) for a standard notebook computer
    • 2) used as a LCD panel for an overhead projector
    • System model
    • - A person could remove the plastic back cover from the LCD panel
    • - Place the laptop computer screen on an overhead projector
    • - The user could place a finger on the LCD panel like a transparency
  • 10. Design prototypes of context-aware systems (5/6)
    • Multifunction systems (2)
    • Electronic Wallet
    • Task model
    • - Reduces the physical materials in a persons pocket (paper, money, credit card, etc)
    • - Improve the ability to identify carrier, record the financial transactions, etc
    • System model
    • - Deliver and record important documents
    • - Communicate wirelessly
    • - Display information
    • - Leather wallet design
  • 11. Design prototypes of context-aware systems (6/6)
    • Proactive model-based systems
      • The system drives or trades off control with the user
    • COACH
    • Task model
    • - A software agent that creates a dynamic user model by observing user interactions with respect to frequency, duration, and efficiency of use
    • Separates the task, user, system model for learnable things
      • - Novice, intermediate, professional and expert
    • Music Ball
    • Task model
    • - The ball-user collaboration creates a language of sounds and associated motions
    • System model
    • - Uses AI strategies for music teaching & structure
    • - Communicates with an enunciator and a motion sensor
  • 12. Conclusion
    • The context-aware design framework focuses on design that accounts for contextual information or settings
      • Why ) Reduces communication barriers by analyzing
        • What can be known about a user
        • How to support that information with task, use and system models
    • This paper has shown how context can be embodied in the form and material of design, in the internal models and in computer reactions
      • For diverse contexts
      • At different levels of complexity