The purpose of this presentation is to share my experiences in the use of Reference Architecture for addressing some key EA challenges.
<ul><li> Addressing key challenges facing EA and enterprise-wide adop7on of SOA Ahmed Fa</li><li> Content Overview Take away points Enterprise Architecture (EA), its importance and challenges Reference Architecture (RA) RA classica7on scheme Enterprise Reference Architecture (ERA) What is it and how can it help enhance EA? Program-level architecture Why is ERA a natural t with SOA? ERA lifecycle Case studies Case study 1 Case study 2 Summary, conclusions and call for ac7on April 2009, v0.2 Enterprise Reference Architecture - 2009 2 </li> <li> Overview The purpose of this presenta2on is to share my experiences in the use of Reference Architecture for addressing some key EA challenges. Problem The importance of EA has been accepted by many organisa7ons, but Huge challenges face many in realising the promised benets of EA on regular basis. Diagnosis Based on my experience, I observed that a root cause is the gap/disconnect between EA and project- level architecture. This gap/disconnect burdens project architects with the interpreta7on of EA principles, policies, standards and guidelines to develop their project architecture. This is o?en dicult, Bme consuming and error prone. Similar burden is placed on the Enterprise Architect to police project-level architecture for conformance. Solu7on The presenta7on relates my experience in developing and applying an approach that successfully uses Reference Architecture (RA) to bridge this gap. This form of RA takes the form of an Enterprise Reference Architecture (ERA) which is a blueprint for the SoluBon Architecture of a number of potenBal projects within an organisaBon that embodies the EAs principles, policies, standards and guidelines. April 2009, v0.2 Enterprise Reference Architecture - 2009 3 </li> <li> Take away points ERA can be a very eec2ve tool for enhancing the eec2veness of EA. Key take away points of the presenta7on: ERA can help in bridging the gap between EA and project-level architecture demonstra2ng the value of EA to the business facilita2ng the enterprise-wide adop2on of SOA April 2009, v0.2 Enterprise Reference Architecture - 2009 4 </li> <li> EA, its importance and challenges The need for and importance of EA have been accepted by many organisa2ons. However, realising the full poten2al of EA in many organisa2ons on regular basis is s2ll very challenging. Other factors Large numbers of projects Inherent gap between EA and project-level Architecture A- Failure of business IT solutions to achieve their business objectives E- Inability of EA to influence and shape business solutions B- Inability to demonstrate the value of EA -Dissatisfaction with IT - Misalignment between business and IT D- Weak EA capabilities C- Inadequate funding of EA - Lack of coverage of Business Architecture - Inadequate communication of EA Other factors Inadequate EA methodology or process Lack of skills April 2009, v0.2 Key challenges that face EA create a vicious cycle Enterprise Reference Architecture - 2009 5 </li> <li> The gap between EA and Project-level Architecture A root cause behind the challenges facing EA is the wide gap/disconnect between EA and Project-level Architecture. This gap/disconnect burdens the project architects to interpret EA principles, policies, standards and guidelines to develop their project architecture. This is o?en dicult, Bme consuming and error prone. Similar burden is placed on the Enterprise Architect to police project-level architecture for conformance which is also dicult, Bme consuming and always controversial. This leads projects to resist or ignore EA par7ally or completely and to a sense of hos7lity between Enterprise Architects and projects. One reason for the wide gap between EA and Project-level Architecture is that although they share the term architecture, they are prac7ced and documented very dierently. This is not surprising since the two architectures serve dierent purposes. EA primarily takes the form of principles, policies, standards and guidelines. Project-level Architecture takes the form of Architectural Decisions, components, interfaces and their rela7onships. April 2009, v0.2 Enterprise Reference Architecture - 2009 6 </li> <li> Reference Architecture The term Reference Architecture (RA) is used in the industry to refer to a wide variety of constructs from high level abstract conceptual models to a specialised technical architecture. There are many deni7ons of Reference Architecture that although slightly dierent, have many common elements. For our purpose here, the Wikipedias deni7on is adequate: A Reference Architecture provides a proven template solu2on for an architecture for a par2cular domain. It also provides a common vocabulary with which to discuss implementa2ons, oSen with the aim to stress commonality. Examples of RA cover a very wide range: Unisys 3D Blueprint  which covers strategy, business processes, applica7ons and infrastructure. Specialised technical architecture such as IBM WebSphere Integra7on Reference Architecture . The terms Reference Architecture and Reference Model are some7mes used interchangeably. April 2009, v0.2 Enterprise Reference Architecture - 2009 7 </li> <li> RA Classification Scheme Although I have used Reference Architectures for a long 2me, I was surprised when I reviewed the staggering range of usage of the term recently. Google search for the term Reference Architecture has over 300,000 hits I rst assumed that some of these usages must be erroneous. However, I realised that this was not the case, at least for the many instances I have surveyed But that the culprit is the malleability of the term architecture itself. This means that anything you can think of can have an architecture and by extension a RA. My thesis is based on the belief that Reference Architectures can be dis7nguished along two dimensions: Coverage Level of abstrac8on April 2009, v0.2 Enterprise Reference Architecture - 2009 8 </li> <li> RA Classification Scheme: Coverage Coverage or applicability indicates the area where a RA can be useful. Some RAs cover only presenta2on, integra2on or security aspects of solu2ons, others cover an end-to-end enterprise solu2on. Architecture Pattern (MVC, f or example) Partial Ref erence Architecture covering specif ic subsystem such as presentation, integration or security April 2009, v0.2 End-to-end Ref erence Architecture covering business and IT aspect of a solution End-to-end coverage Narrow coverage Patterns End-to-end Technical Ref erence Architecture covering only IT aspects of a solution Partial Reference Architecture Enterprise Reference Architecture - 2009 End-to-end Reference Architecture 9 </li> <li> RA Classification Scheme: Level of abstraction Level of Abstrac2on reects how concrete or specic a given RA is. It indicates ul2mately the gap between the RA and a Solu2on Architecture based on it. Reference Architecture can be defined at varying levels of abstraction from the conceptual and generic to the concrete and specific (in TOGAF terms it spans the Enterprise Continuum). Abstract, conceptual generic Few Architectural Decision have been made Conceptual Generic Another useful way to think about this dimension is in terms of Architectural Decisions. Industry On the concrete/specific end, 'all' the Architectural Decisions have been made. On the other end, very few Architectural Decisions are likely to have been made. Enterprise More Architectural Decision have been made Concrete, specif ic Solution A fully instantiated Solution Architecture April 2009, v0.2 Enterprise Reference Architecture - 2009 10 </li> <li> RA Classification Scheme The classica2on scheme is useful in sor2ng out the myriad of RAs that are available to determine which are useful in a given situa2on and how dierent RA are related to each other. Abstract/ generic/ conceptual Oasis SOA Reference Model MVC pattern IBM SOA Solution Stack Reference Model IBM SOAI RA ESB pattern Conceptual Generic IBM SOA Foundation RA IBM Insurance RA Narrow Architecture pattern Industry Enterprise Enterprise Reference Reference Architecture Architecture (ERA) Enterprise ESB pattern implemented using IBM WebSphere stack Comprehen sive Full enterprise solution architecture (ERA) Patterns Partial End-to-end End-to-end Realised Enterprise e2e Solution Architecture Concrete/ Specific/ physical April 2009, v0.2 Enterprise Reference Architecture - 2009 11 </li> <li> Enterprise Reference Architecture (ERA) An ERA is a blueprint for the Solu2on Architecture of a number of poten2al projects within an organisa2on that embodies the EA principles, policies, standards and guidelines. An ERA is a Solu7on Architecture with some of the Architectural Decisions being made and others leg open. ERAs resemble actual Solu7on Architectures. This means that the eort to apply them by project-level architects is rela7vely low. They are applicable to a number of poten7al business solu7ons within the organisa7on. Ideally, the development of ERA should be funded directly by the business to address specic business objec7ves. One key source of knowledge, experience and reusable components for the development and construc7on of ERAs must come from exis7ng projects by way of harves7ng suitable proven components and pa</li><li> Program-level Architecture Funding the development of an ERA directly by the business for a specic business ini2a2ve (a program of projects) can profoundly transform the way architecture is prac2ced in the organisa2on. I refer to this as Program-level Architecture. Enterprise Architecture Interpretation and conformance policing is difficult, time consuming and error prone. Enterprise wide policies, standards, principles and guidelines. Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Reference Architecture In (Program-level Architecture) The missing link between EA and project-level Architecture. One Programlevel Architecture covers a number of project-level Architecture Project-level Architecture Business Solution Architecture April 2009, v0.2 Each solution project must deliver a distinctive business value while advancing the enterprise capabilities whenever possible. Project-level Architecture Business Solution Architecture Enterprise Reference Architecture - 2009 13 </li> <li> ERA and SOA Although the ERA approach proposed in this paper applies to all architecture styles, it's more compelling and easier to apply for SOA because of SOAs emphasis on standardisa2on and reuse. Subsystem Reference Architecture Conceptual SOA Reference Architectures Generic SOA Reference Architectures Industry SOA Reference Architectures Conceptual Generic Industry SOA Enterprise Reference Architecture (ERA) Enterprise Solution SOA Solution Architecture Portal Reference Architecture April 2009, v0.2 Integration Reference Architecture Security Reference Architecture The hierarchy of the SOA RAs that can be adopted and applied within an organisation culminating in a small number of ERAs that can be used to guide projects in creating SOA business solutions. Other partial Reference Architecture Enterprise Reference Architecture - 2009 14 </li> <li> IBM SOA Solution Stack Reference Architecture IBM SOA Solu2on Stack (S3) Reference Architecture is invaluable for crea2ng an ERA for most of the opera2onal business solu2ons for an enterprise. B2B Services atomic and composite Conceptual SOA Reference Architectures Generic SOA Reference Architectures Industry SOA Reference Architectures Conceptual Service Provider Subsystem Reference Architecture Service Components Packaged Existing Application Assets Application Custom Application Governance Composition; choreography; business state machines Data Architecture (meta-data) & Business Intelligence Business Process QoS Layer (Security, Management & Monitoring Infrastructure Services) Integration (Enterprise Service Bus) Service Consumer Channel Consumers OO Application Generic Industry Atomic Service Composite Service Registry SOA Enterprise Reference Architecture (ERA) Enterprise Solution SOA Solution Architecture Portal Reference Architecture Integration Reference Architecture April 2009, v0.2 Security Reference Architecture Other partial Reference Architecture Enterprise Reference Architecture - 2009 15 </li> <li> An ERA based on IBM Solution Stack Reference Architecture Developing an SOA ERA based on the IBM S3 RA can be done systema2cally by mapping each layer to technical and func2onal components. B2B atomic and composite Governance Services Data Architecture (meta-data) & Business Intelligence Integration (Enterprise Service Bus) Business Process Compo...</li></ul>