Smart grid - Carlo Alberto Nucci

  • Published on
    21-Jun-2015

  • View
    223

  • Download
    1

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Smart Grid: produzione e distribuzione dellenergia.

Transcript

<ul><li> 1. Labmee&amp;ng1DESIGNEENERGYMANAGEMENT SmartGrid:produzioneedistribuzionedellenergia. Casiapplica&amp;videlCentroInterdipar&amp;mentalediRicercaIndustrialeEnergiae Ambiente(CIRIENA)edelLISEPUniversitdiBologna Prof.CarloAlbertoNucciIng.DavideMessori carloalberto.nucci@unibo.itdavide.messori@unibo.it DEIGuglielmoMarconiUniversitdiBologna </li></ul> <p> 2. Outline Ilsistemaele9rico SmartGrid(eSmartCity) Casiapplica?viCIRIENA:microgrid Islandingintenzionalediporzionedirete ci9adina 3. Outline Ilsistemaele9rico SmartGrid(eSmartCity) Casiapplica?viCIRIENA:microgrid Islandingintenzionalediporzionedirete ci9adina 4. Sistemaele9rico 4 Soddisfare365giornilanno24oresu24ladomandadienergiaeleSricadi: 700clien&amp;AT(20%) 100.000clien&amp;MT(35%) 35.000.000clien&amp;BT(20%domes&amp;ci,25%altriusi) Missione* Produzione&gt;560.000 Trasmissione=1 Distribuzione=144 Venditori&gt;380 *CortesiaIng.G.Valtorta-ENEL 5. 5 Sistemaele9rico Evoluzionedelmixdelparcogenerazione 6. 6 Sistemaele9rico Lacoperturadelladomanda 7. 7 Sistemaele9rico ConnessioniGD 8. 8 Produzione: 3500termo 78GW 2900idro 22GW 500.000fotov.16GW 1000eolici8GW nel199960impian&amp;Enel40GW 2400MW60MW 400MW 200kW 20kW Sistemaele9rico Par?principali* *CortesiaIng.G.Valtorta-ENEL 9. Trasmissione(1): 153stazioni380/150kV 158stazioni220/150kV 10.700kmrete380kV 11.300kmrete220kV 39.000kmrete150kV *CortesiaIng.G.Valtorta-ENEL Sistemaele9rico Par?principali* 10. 10 Distribuzione(144): 1800cabine150/20kV* 350.000kmrete20kV* 435.000cabine20/0,4kV* 780.000kmrete0,4kV* *consistenzeEnelD(95%) *CortesiaIng.G.Valtorta-ENEL Sistemaele9rico Par?principali* 11. ALvit: 2013: 643delibere 2012: 587delibere 2011: 618delibere L'Autoritperl'energiaeleSricailgasedil sistemaidricounorganismoindipendente, is&amp;tuitoconlalegge14novembre1995,n.481 conilcompitoditutelaregliinteressidei consumatoriedipromuoverelaconcorrenza, l'ecienzaeladiusionediserviziconadegua&amp; livellidiqualit,aSraversol'ajvitdi regolazioneedicontrollo. cicliregolatoriquadriennali Sistemaele9rico A9ori 12. AEEG Tes?Integra? 12 Sistemaele9rico A9ori 13. Sistemaele9rico A9ori IlGSEoperaperlapromozionedellosviluppo sostenibileaSraversolaqualicatecnico- ingegneris&amp;caelavericadegliimpian&amp;afon&amp; rinnovabiliedicogenerazioneadaltorendimento; riconosceinoltregliincen?viperlenergiaeleSrica prodoSaeimmessainretedataliimpian&amp;. Potenzainstallatagenerazionedafon&amp;rinnovabili49.480MW(39% totaleinstallato) Produzionedafon&amp;rinnovabili108TWh(33%fabbisogno) TWh IdroeleSrico 51 Fotovoltaico 22 Eolico 15 Bioenergie 14 Altro 6 Da&amp;GSE2013 OneriA3rinnovabili2013=13,4G 14. Prezzoenergiaele9rica 14 fonteAEEG Sistemaele9rico 15. PrelievineLreteEnelDistribuzioneMT/BTdaRTN20/4/2014: minimostorico4600MW DivisioneInfrastru9ureeRe? ReteEle9rica-SalaControllo Sistemaele9rico CortesiaIng.G.Valtorta-ENEL 16. Outline Ilsistemaele9rico SmartGrid(eSmartCity) Casiapplica?viCIRIENA:microgrid Islandingintenzionalediporzionedirete ci9adina 17. 17 Sistemaele9rico EvoluzioneversolaSmartGrid 18. Ridurreicos&amp;energe&amp;ciinazienda:dagliscenariaimeccanismidiincen&amp;vazione 1.Inversionediussidipotenza Limi&amp;ditransito Alterazioneproliditensionesullelinee Malfunzionamentoprotezioni 2.Aleatorietdellefon?rinnovabili Necessitdisorgen&amp;diaccumulo Ges&amp;oneancorapiintelligentedelsistema,e ampiousodiICT 3.Impiegodifon?rinnovabili usodiconver&amp;tori(enongeneratorisincroni)e quindiperditadiinerziaedistabilit Perch deve essere Smart 19. EnelSmartInfo Customerawareness Enelsmartinfo ASraversolu&amp;lizzodiunastruSuraconsolidatadicontatoriintelligen&amp;,lEnelhasviluppatouna nuovagenerazionedisoluzioni Assicura, in tempo reale, un facile accesso ad informazioniaggiun?veeaiconsumistorici Laccessoaida&amp;cer&amp;ca&amp;delcontatoredapartedegliaSoridelmercato, vienefacilitatosenzadiscriminazione,alloscopodiabilitarenuoviservizi ed implementare nuove soluzioni per lecienza energe&amp;ca (in-home automa?on,ac?vedemand,etc.) Collegatoadunadellepreseele9richedicasa Univocamenteassociatoalcontatoreele9ronico Rendedisponibiliida?diconsumoediproduzione CortesiaIng.G.Valtorta-ENEL 20. Levoluzionesmartdelleinfrastru9ure Unaretediinfrastru9ureinteroperabilichepossaintegrare tuLglia9ori/stakeholderseabilitareserviziinnova?viperici9adini Ges?oneRinnovabili Dispacciamento Forecast Storage DataHub SensorNetworks BigData MobilitEle9rica Vehicle-to-Grid Fast-Charge LoadShaping Car-Sharing DomandaALvae SmartBuilding ServizialMercato Energy-Box LoadBalancing Teleges?one Mul&amp;-servizio MeteringeDataService Comunicazione Always-on Low-latency Servizi abilita? Tecnologia abilitante Intelligenza centralizzatae distribuita Automazionee controllodirete, sistemidi Dispacciamento locali Infrastru9ureper ricaricaEV integrateinrete SmartMetering (eleSricoe mul&amp;-servizio)e SmartInfo Disposi&amp;viSmart eleSronicadi potenzaeStorage SistemidiMonitoraggio dellenergiaalivello RegionaleeLocale 20 21. Outline Ilsistemaele9rico SmartGrid(eSmartCity) Casiapplica?viCIRIENA:microgrid Islandingintenzionalediporzionedirete ci9adina 22. Stazionediprovapersistemidigenerazione: Lamicro-gridele9rica LUOBioenergiedelCIRIENAstudiaelavora, dal2003,suunamicro-gridcogenera&amp;va implementatapressoilaboratoridelLazzareSo (DIEM,UniversitdiBologna). Taleajvit,mirataaltes&amp;ngdellamini-retedi generatorielejciintelligente,viene ulteriormenteimplementataaSraversolo sviluppodelsistemamediantelintroduzionedi nuovacomponen&amp;s&amp;ca. Altriprogejecollaborazioni nellambitodeisistemismart-grid sonosviluppa&amp;nelcontestodelCIRI ENAedeisingoligruppidilavoro. 23. Micro-controlledPowerManagementSystemfor StandaloneMicrogridswithHybridPowerSupply 24. 24 Ba9erystateofchargees?ma?on ( ) 0 0( ) ( , ) ( ) ( , ) t t C t I i t dt SOC t C I = where: C(I,)isthebaSerycapacityfora constantdischargerateIofthe baSeryatelectrolytetemperature C(t0)isthebaSerycapacityat&amp;me t0 i(t)istheinstantaneousvalueofthe baSerycurrent istheeciencycoecient associatedtobaSerychargeand discharge(forsmallSOCvaria&amp;ons 1). 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 Batterycapacity(Ah) Battery open circuit voltage (V) ( ) ( )( )* 0 / 20 1C t C = + = 0.006 Ah/C * = 20 C Temperaturecorrec?on Micro-controlledPowerManagementSystemfor StandaloneMicrogridswithHybridPowerSupply 25. SistemadicontrolloDSP Fasediscarica Cr n[ ]= Cr n 1[ ] KDC KT Kev A n[ ] S?macapacitdisponibile Cnew = C 100%Cr 100 %Cr n[ ]= Cr n[ ] C 100 Fasediscarica Cr n[ ]= Cr n 1[ ]+ CH KT A n[ ] Stazionediprovapersistemidigenerazione: Lamicro-gridele9rica 26. PEM fuel cell stack Characteristics: -Pstack 6 kW -Vstack 50 70 V -Temp 65 C -pH2 1.7 bar -plates graphite -n of plates 80 -dead end pulsing Micro-controlledPowerManagementSystemfor StandaloneMicrogridswithHybridPowerSupply 27. A3 A2 Water Outlet Water Inlet Air Outlet A1 A0 Air Inlet Radiator Fan Water pump Blower Filter Heat exchanger Electro valve 2 Electro Valve 1 Pressure reducing valve H2 Outlet Gas to gas humidifier 3-way valve Stop cock S10 W2 W7 A CM WC1 WC2 W8 W1 W5 W6 W3 W4 H2 Inlet A4H1 Water tank S9 STACK Watertank Humidier Heat Exchanger Blower Waterpump H2inlet valve Stack PEM fuel cell layout Micro-controlledPowerManagementSystemfor StandaloneMicrogridswithHybridPowerSupply 28. FUEL CELL STACK S2 S7 230 V Electro valve 1 S3 S8 Master Board 24 V Electro valve 2 15 V data data Voltage transformer 230 V Single phase AC bus Fuse box M 3-way valve motor Water Pump M DC/AC CONVERTER M Fan Blower M Slave Board AUX control 26 V PEMfuelcellelectricscheme FC inverter Voltage transformer Slave board Aux outpuAC bus output Micro-controlledPowerManagementSystemfor StandaloneMicrogridswithHybridPowerSupply 29. CapabilityofPMStocontrol theFCtokeepthebaSeryDC voltagebelowtheovervoltage relaythresholdofthebaSery inverter,varioustestsoffull loaddisconnec&amp;ons a) measuredprolesofload, baSeryandFCoutputsaswell assetbythePMSac&amp;on. b) correspondingmeasured prolesofthebaSeryvoltage andcurrent,togetherwith overvoltagelimiteroutput variableumax Micro-controlledPowerManagementSystemfor StandaloneMicrogridswithHybridPowerSupply 30. Stazionediprovapersistemidigenerazione: ilbancoprova F.E.R. ENERGIA TERMICA ... Sistema di Accumulo Termico SORGENTE n-esima SISTEMA DI CONTROLLO ACBUS SORGENTE 2 ... Rete esterna FUEL 2 FUEL n-esimo ... Sistema Bancoprova CaricoeleSrico:ajvoe reajvo Caricotermico F.E.R.=PVemulator Sist.alim.fuel:bomboleH2 Sistemadicontrollo: NI_cRIO TrasformatoriOLTC Sensoridimisura 1Sorgenteajva: PEMFC Sist.Acc.eleSrico: BaSerie Sistemaaccumulo termico Inverter 31. Fonte energetica rinnovabile non programmabile Water pump Water Tank Valvola di non ritorno Regolatore di portata O2 outlet H2 outlet Rack Valvola di riduzione Sistema di accumulo H2 H2 Backup H2 Outlet Elettrovalvola Exhaust gas outlet Reaction Air Inlet Cooling Air Inlet Cooling Air Outlet Electrolyzer AC BUS Filtro Reaction air blower Cooling air fan Inverter bidirezionale PV Inverter FC Inverter Batterie Rete Elettrica Esterna Electronic Load H2 bus Bombole a Idruri metallici Bombole a 200 bar MEA MEA Cooling Air Inlet Cooling Air Outlet Dispositivo di raffreddamento P-7 P-19 Lobiejvoproseguirelajvit implementandoilsistemacon: - EleSrolizzatore; - SistemadiaccumulodiH2; - AltraFER Stazionediprovapersistemidigenerazione: ilprossimobancoprova 32. Outline Ilsistemaele9rico SmartGrid(eSmartCity) Casiapplica?viCIRIENA:microgrid Islandingintenzionalediporzionedirete ci9adina 33. Casedescrip?on 80MWpowerplant: twoaeroderiva&amp;vegasturbine(GT)unitsand asteamturbineunit(ST)incombinedcycle; PPconnectedtoa132kVsubsta&amp;onfeeding aurbanmediumvoltage(MV)distribu&amp;on network; PPsubsta&amp;onislinked,bymeansofacable line,tothe132kVsubsta&amp;onthatfeeds15 feedersofthelocalmediumvoltage(15kV) distribu&amp;onnetworkandprovidesalsothe connec&amp;onwiththeexternaltransmission networkthroughoutcircuitbreakerBR1. 800mcableline External transmission network BR1 BR1-GT1 BR-ST BR1-GT2 BR2-GT1 BR2-GT2 PMU3 PMU2 PMU1 Managementofinten&amp;onalandnoninten&amp;onalislanding opera&amp;onofac&amp;vedistribu&amp;ongrids 34. a)OperatesBR1forthedisconnec&amp;onofthenetwork fromtheexternalgrid; b)CommunicatestheLoadDroopAn&amp;cipator commandtotheSTcontrolsystemincaseof islandingmaneuversaccomplishedatratherlarge powerexportedlevelstothetransmissionnetwork; c)DisconnectsMVfeedersfollowingapredened prioritylistinordertoguaranteetheloadbalance; d)selectstheopera&amp;oncontrolmodeofthetwogas turbines(masterandslave)forthefrequency regula&amp;onofthenetworkinislandedcondi&amp;ons; e)controlsthepowerplantunitsinordertoallowa reliablereconnec&amp;onmaneuversofthenetworkto theexternalgrid. 800mcableline External transmission network BR1 BR1-GT1 BR-ST BR1-GT2 BR2-GT1 BR2-GT2 PMU3 PMU2 PMU1 Managementofinten&amp;onalandnoninten&amp;onalislanding opera&amp;onofac&amp;vedistribu&amp;ongrids Islandingcapabili&amp;estestedwithEMTP-RV. Proc.UPEC,Padua,Italy,Sept2008 PPisequippedwithaPMSthat: STGT1 GT2 35. Distribu?onnetworkvoltagephasorsanglesdierences duringtheislandingofGT1 800mcableline External transmission network BR1 BR1-GT1 BR-ST BR1-GT2 BR2-GT1 BR2-GT2 PMU3 PMU2 PMU1 Managementofinten&amp;onalandnoninten&amp;onalislanding opera&amp;onofac&amp;vedistribu&amp;ongrids 1 2 3 36. 800mcableline External transmission network BR1 BR1-GT1 BR-ST BR1-GT2 BR2-GT1 BR2-GT2 PMU3 PMU2 PMU1 Reconnec?onmaneuver descrip?on: AfeedbackofthePMU measurementswasgivento thePPoperator. Thesynchro-checkrelayandthe synchronizingPMSac&amp;on permiSedthesmooth reconnec&amp;onmaneuver. Managementofinten&amp;onalandnoninten&amp;onalislanding opera&amp;onofac&amp;vedistribu&amp;ongrids 37. Voltagephasorsangledierences 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 0.21 -1600 -1400 -1200 -1000 -800 -600 -400 -200 0 200 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Angledifferencebetweenpositive-sequence componentsofPMU1andPMU2phasors() Angledifferencebetweenpositive-sequence componentsofPMU2andPMU3phasors() Time(s) PMU2-PMU3 PMU1-PMU2 Iden&amp;ca&amp;onofthe correctphase dierencebetween islandedand externalnetworkto triggerthe reconnec&amp;on maneuver. Managementofinten&amp;onalandnoninten&amp;onalislanding opera&amp;onofac&amp;vedistribu&amp;ongrids 38. PMUmeasuredfrequencytransient 49.95 50 50.05 50.1 50.15 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Frequency(Hz) Time(s) PMU1 PMU2 PMU3 Monitoringofthe frequency dierence(posi&amp;ve) betweenthe islandednetwork (PMU1andPMU2) andtheexternal network(PMU3). Managementofinten&amp;onalandnoninten&amp;onalislanding opera&amp;onofac&amp;vedistribu&amp;ongrids 39. ICTandPowerSystemCo-simula?onfortheanalysisof networkedcontrolstrategiesindistribu?onsystems* *CortesiaIng.R.BoSura,Prof.A.BorghejLISEP-DEI-Unibo Possibleapproachestoaddresstheissueofcoordina&amp;ngthevariousDistributedEnergyResources(DERs) andloadswiththeac&amp;onofavailablecontrolmeans,suchastransformersequippedwithon-loadtap changers(OLTC),mechanicalswitchedshuntcapacitors,sta&amp;cvarcompensators(SVC),Photovoltaic(PV) Inverters,baSeries,etc. LOCALregulators,meanthatuseonlylocalmeasurements. CENTRALIZED:Ac&amp;veNetworkManagement(ANM)func&amp;onsincentralDistribu?onManagement System(DMS). DISTRIBUTED:networkedMul?-AgentSystem(MAS)composedbynumerouslocalizedcontrollers withtheabilitytocommunicatewitheachother. Inordertolimittherequiredreinforcementsofthecommunica&amp;oninfrastructurescurrentlyadoptedby Distribu&amp;onNetworkOperators(DNOs)andproduceamoreuniformtrac,thestudyisfocusedona DISTRIBUTEDleader-lessMAS,thatdonotassignspecialcoordina&amp;ngrulestospecicagents.Moreover, itisexpectedtobelessaectedbylimita&amp;onsandconstraintofsomecommunica&amp;onlinksduefor exampletohighlevelsofthebackgroundtracorinterference. AnICT-powerco-simula?onplamormwasdeveloped,abletorepresentthecharacteris&amp;csofboththe componentsofthecommunica&amp;onnetwork(OPNET-Riverbed)andthedynamicbehaviourofelectric powerdistribu&amp;onfeeders(EMTP-rv). 40. ICTandPowerSystemCo-simula?onfortheanalysisof networkedcontrolstrategiesindistribu?onsystems* *CortesiaIng.R.BoSura,Prof.A.BorghejLISEP-DEI-Unibo EMTP OPNET Power System Time Driven C++ CLIENT (COM Interface) C++ SERVER (Execution Controller) Communication Model Event Driven SOCKET DLL DLL HLA t CO-SIMULATION COORDINATION </p>