These are the slides from my Studying Society course at Durham University's Foundation Centre. This week is all about measuring class and discussing how class divisions are reproduced.
1. The reproduction of class
2. OutlineMeasuring classSocial mobilityHealth inequalityRole of education 3. Measuring Class Very difficult Important for administrative reasons Last week we looked at 3 types of capital How might you measure each? What else might be a useful and easy to capture measure of class? 4. Weber and Class Focus on status market situation Multiple classes Not all economic Contrast with Marx Mean Girls 5. Measuring ClassNational Statistics Socio-economic Classification (NS-SEC) Takes employment relations approach Employer, self employed, employee Supervisor, supervised Level of self direction and independence Labour market situation equates to source of income, economicsecurity and prospects of economic advancement. Recently changed (2001) to try and incorporate full population (iestudents, non working etc.) Not ordinal (i.e. not a ranking) 6. National Statistics Socio-economic Classification 1 Higher managerial, administrative and professional occupations 1.1 Large employers and higher managerial and administrative occupations 1.2 Higher professional occupations 2 Lower managerial, administrative and professional occupations 3 Intermediate occupations 4 Small employers and own account workers 5 Lower supervisory and technical occupations 6 Semi-routine occupations 7 Routine occupations 8 Never worked and long-term unemployed 7. Distribution of wealth by classHousehold wealth including pension wealthLarge employers and higher managerial Higher professional Lower managerial and professionalIntermediate occupationsSmall employers and own account workers Lower supervisory and technicalSemi-routine occupationsRoutine occupationsMean Median Never worked/long term unemployed 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000700,000800,000 0 8. Social MobilitySocial mobility refers to the movement of people up or down the social class hierarchy (Browne) Intra-generational This is the extent to which somebody changesclass within their lifetime [e.g. Cheryl Cole] Inter-generational This is the extent to which offspring have changedstatus compared to their parents class [e.g. Margaret Thatcher grocers daughter] 9. Health InequalityAge-standardised mortality rate: men aged 25-64,2001-3 10. DFLE for males and femalesat birth 2005-8 Male Female1 Least deprived 69.3 70.3266.6 68.5365.1 65.9462.1 63.45 Most deprived54.7 57.9 11. Why?In groups think of as many reasons as you can to explain healthinequalities Think about economic, social and cultural capital + material differences Differences in employment Differences in neighbourhood 12. break 13. EducationWhy have state education at all? More skilled workforce Improve effectiveness of armies Re-socialise the wasteful poor Reduce the level of street crime Reduce threat of revolution Human right 14. Functionalist view ofeducationThe education system has three functions1. Socialisation Values, norms2. Skills provision Literacy, numeracy, I.T.?3. Role allocation Identify and reward talent 15. school as a factory 16. Marxist views on education Legitimate capitalist values as common values Private property Accept the current order Creates conformist working class Uniform Punctual Obedient Learning to Labour Willis Ethnographic account of earoles and lads Rejection of dominant values, prepares lads for working class world of boring alienated labour 17. Attainment of at least 5 A*-C GCSEs908070605040302010 0 Higher professional Lower professional Intermediate Lower supervisory Routine Other 18. Education Inequality (Class inHE) 60 50Non- manual 40 30 20 Manual 100 1991/92 1993/94 1995/96 1997/98 1999/2000 2001/02 19. Why?Think of possible reasons for this gap in attainment Economic capital Social capital Cultural capital Other factors 20. Explanations Economic capital Housing Health/ diet Lack of books/computer/ trips Lack of support to stay on Work during school Catchment areas Social/ Cultural Parental attitudes (about education and school) Parental level of education Language use (restricted/ elaborated) School factors Labelling Teachers attitudes Anti-school subculture (Willis) 21. Who gets the best jobs?BBC documentaryWhat are other barriers to social mobility?Why does social mobility matter? 22. How does the use of internshelp reproduce social class? 23. SummaryProblems with measuring classWeber and social classNational Statistics measuresClass and educationClass and healthReproduction of class